Cornea Journal Cover Letter

Author information pack

The American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO) is a peer-reviewed, scientific publication that welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts directed to ophthalmologists and visual science specialists. The manuscripts describe clinical investigations, clinical observations, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations. Published monthly since 1884, the full text of the AJO and supplementary material are also presented online at and on Science Direct.

The AJO publishes Full-Length Articles, Perspectives, Editorials, Correspondence, Book Reports and Announcements. Brief Reports and Case Reports are no longer published. We recommend submitting Brief Reports and Case Reports to our companion publication, the American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports.

Manuscripts are accepted with the understanding that they have not been and will not be published elsewhere substantially in any format, and that there are no ethical concerns with the content or data collection. Authors may be requested to produce the data upon which the manuscript is based and to answer expeditiously any questions about the manuscript or its authors. See AJO policies on redundant publication and access to data.


Full-Length Articles are previously unpublished manuscripts directed to ophthalmologists and visual science specialists. They include clinical investigations, clinical observations, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations.

Full-Length Articles should, in general, not exceed 7 to 8 single-spaced typewritten pages of manuscript text. References, figure captions, and tables are additional pages that should be used judiciously. Supplemental Material may be provided for the AJO website if a manuscript is accepted. Manuscripts should begin each component on a new page in the following order: (1) title page, (2) text, (3) acknowledgments/disclosure, (4) references, (5) figure captions. The following items are uploaded separate from the manuscript file: (1) abstract, (2) tables, (3) figures, (4) permission forms, (5) appendices/supplementary material. Refer to the Checklist when submitting.


Manuscripts reporting randomized controlled trials should adhere to the requirements for Manuscript Preparation. In addition, text (which may be up to 10 single-spaced typewritten pages in length) should contain subheadings and information specified in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. A flow diagram to illustrate the randomization procedure or procedures and numbers and the AJO Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement Form must be submitted with the manuscript. Authors may decide whether this form will appear in print or only online as Supplemental Material. These requirements follow suggestions published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). (Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials: the CONSORT Statement. JAMA 1996;276:637-639).


Invitation-only AJO Perspectives are focused opinions regarding the evidence supporting the use of a current technique, procedure, therapy, or clinical approach, tempered by the experience and viewpoints of the authors(s). Perspectives should not be a review article. Perspective preparation should follow the guidelines of a Full-Length Article, including a structured abstract of 250 words or less and Table of Contents statement of 75 words or less. The Perspective should be of appropriate length but should not exceed 9 pages of single-spaced typewritten text, 35 references, and 8 figures or equivalent tables. Authors share the cost of color figure reproduction. Perspectives are subject to the standard peer-review process, which is necessary to meet the policies and standard procedures of the AJO.


Editorials provide a forum for interpretive, analytical, or reflective opinions related to manuscripts in the AJO or statements about clinical, scientific, or socioeconomic issues. The invitation-only Editorial should be objective and dispassionate, but is likely to provide alternative points of view and some bias. Editorials should not exceed 1200 words with no more than 15 references. In general, figures and tables should not be used.

Editorials do not have an Abstract.


Letters about recent articles published in the AJO are encouraged and should be submitted through the Elsevier Editorial System within 8 weeks of the article's publication. Correspondence may correct errors, provide support or agreement, or offer different points of view and additional information.

Correspondence submitted should not exceed 500 words of text and six references. One of the references should be the Article in question. The corresponding author should provide the name of the institution, city and country which will be included in the published article.

Figures and tables are generally not accepted. The AJO does not use the Correspondence section for reporting case reports or short clinical research articles. Correspondence is considered for publication by the Editorial Board and is subject to editing. The authors of articles discussed in the correspondence are given an opportunity to reply in an expedited fashion, adhering to the AJO policy on Responsibility of Authors. If authors do not reply to the correspondence within 14 days, this statement may appear in the AJO print issue in association with the correspondence: "The Authors failed to provide a response to the correspondence in a timely manner." Please provide a complete title page as defined above under Full-Length Article instructions. Financial disclosures should be provided at the end of the correspondence and may be published. (see Acknowledgment section B for information to disclose).

When appropriate, an effort is made before publication to resolve any controversies between correspondents and the authors of an article.


The American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO) is interested in publishing high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors submitting a systematic review to AJO should refer to the article “Preparing a Systematic Review for the American Journal of Ophthalmology: Updated Guidance.”1
Mandatory for each systematic review submission is inclusion of a completed PRISMA checklist (PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions2) to optimize the reporting of the systematic review. When preparing the checklist, the authors should indicate the page and line at which each PRISMA statement requisite has been fulfilled in the manuscript.
A series of recent reporting or methodological tools, including risk of bias tools3–9 and the Cochrane Handbook10, are strongly suggested as background knowledge in the preparation of the manuscript. These tools were originally designed to be used by systematic reviewers who assess published studies, thus the tools address quality issues which should have been implemented by study authors in the design and protocol phase. Nonetheless, these tools may assist them in preparing a manuscript that discloses strengths and limitations of their study. A further suggested tool is the use of the GRADE framework11 to help the authors assign an overall quality of the evidence and, finally, to better interpret their results.
The registration of a review protocol on specialized registries, such as PROSPERO is highly recommended. A published protocol allows the users of a systematic review to cross-check whether the methods prespecified in the protocols were in fact implemented, or whether there were post-hoc changes as well as the reasons for them. The protocol registration serves to identify selective reporting of results of a systematic review. The protocol registration is expected to have been made in sufficient advance to allow the review conduction, unless the authors label their work as a rapid review and give reasons for this expedited process.
The submission should be accompanied by a cover letter which explains why the review question is important to clinicians or users, including patients and policymakers. This cover letter should also present the expertise of authors' team members with clinical skills as well as that of authors with systematic review methods and statistical expertise.
Items that are not mandatory in the AJO guidance will be considered by the Editors at their discretion, depending on the topic and context, when evaluating the submission of a systematic review to AJO.

  1. G. Virgili, R.K. 2nd Parrish. Preparing a Systematic Review for the American Journal of Ophthalmology: Updated Guidance. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep 6.
  2. A. Liberati, D.G. Altman, J. Tetzlaff, et al., The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: explanation and elaboration, BMJ 339, 2009, b2700.
  3. J.A. Sterne, M.A. Hernan, B.C. Reeves, et al., ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions, BMJ 355, 2016, i4919.
  4. 1. P.F. Whiting, A.W. Rutjes, M.E. Westwood, et al., QUADAS-2 Group, QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies, Ann Intern Med 155 (8), 2011, 529–536.
  5. M.M. Leeflang, J.J. Deeks, C. Gatsonis and P.M. Bossuyt, Cochrane Diagnostic Test Accuracy Working Group, Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy, Ann Intern Med 149 (12), 2008, 889–897.
  6. J.A. Hayden, P. Cote and C. Bombardier, Evaluation of the quality of prognosis studies in systematic reviews, Ann Intern Med 144, 2006, 427–437.
  7. K.A. Robinson, I.J. Saldanha and N.A. Mckoy, Frameworks for determining research gaps during systematic reviews. Methods Future Research Needs Report No. 2, 2011, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), Rockville, Maryland, Available at. Accessed September 4, 2017
  8. J.A. Hayden, D.A. van der Windt, J.L. Cartwright, P. Côté and C. Bombardier, Assessing bias in studies of prognostic factors, Ann Intern Med 158 (4), 2013, 280–286.
  9. H. Hemingway, P. Croft, P. Perel, et al., PROGRESS Group, Prognosis research strategy (PROGRESS) 1: a framework for researching clinical outcomes, BMJ 346, 2013, e5595.
  10. Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available at Accessed September 4, 2017.
  11. G.H. Guyatt, A.D. Oxman, G.E. Vist, GRADE Working Group, et al., GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations, BMJ 336 (7650), 2008, 924–926.

Process for pre-approval of a Systematic Review and/or Meta-Analysis

The AJO will only publish systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses which contain all of the above elements, with a particular interest in ensuring that these are free of bias. This includes, but is not limited to, requiring that the protocol and eligibility criteria be pre-defined before the systematic review and/or meta-analysis is conducted. Therefore, the AJO will only review a systematic review and/or meta-analysis that has been pre-approved by the Editorial Board before the systematic review and/or meta-analysis is conducted; the only exception to this are protocols pre-approved by the Cochrane Collaboration. The form with complete instructions for pre-approval may be downloaded here.

Potential authors must understand that the pre-approval of a systematic review and/or meta-analysis is not a complete review. The pre-approval request will first be sent for a clinical review to ensure that the clinical question in the introduction section is appropriate and relevant. If so, the pre-approval request will then be sent for a complete review (particularly of the methods) to someone with expertise in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Both the clinical and methods review must be favorable for the systematic review and/or meta-analysis to be granted pre-approval. Although the clinical and/or methods reviewers may provide feedback, this should not be anticipated.

Authors should be aware that pre-approval is a necessary but not sufficient condition for publication in the AJO, as the actual submission of the systematic review and/or meta-analysis will still be subjected to the AJO peer-review process. To obtain pre-approval, authors should download the above-linked form and fill it out precisely according to instructions. It may then be emailed to the AJO Office at for initial editorial review. If approved, further instructions will be provided for document submission within the EES system.


The AJO offers limited opportunities to announce national or international meetings, symposia, or workshops. Other honors or awards may also be appropriate to announce. The Editor-in-Chief makes the final decision about material to include in the Announcements section of the AJO. Announcements are presented in very brief format in the print publication, with more extensive information at Announcements should be sent in digital format by e-mail to the AJO at


The AJO offers limited opportunity for reviews of ophthalmic books, monographs, or software. Reviews are by invitation only. Publishers or authors are invited to submit requests for their material to be reviewed by writing the AJO at

The Book Review Editor will then forward the material to one or more of the AJO's reviewers for evaluation. The Editor-in-Chief makes the final decision as to what material will be published. The reviews are presented in very brief format in the print publication, with more extensive information available at


Obituaries may be offered by readers or requested by the Editor-in-Chief to commemorate the lives of remarkable individuals who are internationally renowned for their contributions to Ophthalmology. The Editor-in-Chief makes the final decision about publishing Obituaries.

Richard K. Parrish, II, MD, Editor-in-Chief
American Journal of Ophthalmology

For comments and questions, you may contact the Editorial Office of the AJO by email:

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Use of animals in biomedical research

If animals are used in the protocol or the study, the manuscript should describe in the Methods section the animal care protocol that was followed, name the institution that sponsored the study, and identify relevant IRB approval. Biomedical research involving animals must conform to generally accepted principles of animal maintenance and care, such as those of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology ( of interest in peer-review process and disclosure

Authors, editors, or reviewers may hold conflicting or competing interests that could result in bias during the peer review process. Although there are many types of bias, financial disclosure requires specific and detailed reporting. The AJO requires that all authors and coauthors report ALL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES IN MEDICINE, whether or not the authors judge them to be related to the specific manuscript being submitted.

Financial disclosure should include:

The entity: government, foundation, grant, commercial company, academic institution, etc.

Personal Fees: income from honoraria, consulting, lectures, speakers' bureaus, expert testimony, commercial employment, stock or equity interests, or intellectual property rights (royalties, patents, licenses, copyright)

Miscellaneous Forms of Support: drugs, equipment, travel expenses, writing assistance, administrative support, etc.

Authors who have no financial disclosures in medicine should state, "No financial disclosures." The author disclosure information should be submitted in a specific format in the Acknowledgment Section. The disclosures will be available to reviewers during the peer review process and published with an accepted article. The failure of an author, reviewer, or editor to declare all financial interests interferes with the reader's entitlement to know this potential source of bias and will result in a reprimand from the journal when it is discovered.

Reviewers and editors should also declare any conflicts of interest with regard to a manuscript under review. AJO reviewers and editors must recuse themselves if they cannot render fair and objective assessments.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Attesting to authorship contributions

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed. Authors must attest that each meets the 4 criteria of authorship defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors during the “Additional Information” step of the manuscript submission process; this attestation will be automatically included in the Acknowledgment Section of the manuscript when published. These criteria require that an author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content as well as take responsibility for the integrity of their coauthors as well. One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article.

The order of authorship on the byline should be a joint decision of the co-authors. Authors should be prepared to explain the order in which authors are listed. The AJO does not permit dual first authors and requests only one corresponding author.

In multicenter trials, the writing group authors should be listed along with the group name (e.g., Smith TT, Jones JJ, on behalf of the Pediatric Amblyopia Study Group). Other group members should be listed in an appendix before the references.

Once a manuscript has been submitted, the order of authorship (including adding or removing authors) should not be changed. Exceptions must be approved by the Editor-in-Chief and the Corresponding Author. The Corresponding Author is responsible for assuring that all the involved authors concur with the change.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Copyright transfer preparation

After acceptance of a manuscript by the Editorial Board, the publisher, Elsevier, will send to the Corresponding author the forms to complete the transfer of copyright to Elsevier. Do not send copyright transfer forms to the AJO office. Elsevier conforms to the National Institutes of Health and other governmental open access policies.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)

For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3399, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good American English . Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.

Informed consent

When human subjects participate in studies or reports, the authors must state in the Methods section that the study and data accumulation were carried out with approval from the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB), Informed Consent for the research was obtained from the patients or subjects, and, for US authors, the study is in accordance with HIPAA regulations. Alternatively, the authors can state that the IRB (name the IRB) waived the need for IRB approval; the authors, however, cannot make the decision that IRB approval was not needed. If waived, the authors must confirm that the study and data accumulation were in conformity with all country, federal, or state laws, informed consent was obtained, and the study was in adherence to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Do not use patients' names, initials, dates, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. Informed Consent for research requires that the subjects agreed to participate after explanation of the nature and possible consequences of the study. This Informed Consent for Research is distinct from the simple informed consent to perform a procedure or test on a patient.

Online manuscript submission

The AJO accepts online submission of manuscripts through Elsevier Editorial System. When a manuscript is submitted online, authors, selected reviewers, editors, and the AJO office can track the progression of the manuscript until a final disposition is made.

Elsevier Editorial System can be accessed at On the Elsevier Editorial System front page, click the "Register" link to input your demographics and set up your account. After your registration is complete, a notice will be sent to your e-mail address indicating your user ID and your password. Use this information to log in to Elsevier Editorial System as an author by choosing the "Login" link on the toolbar and select "Submit New Manuscript." Follow the prompts to complete your submission according to the specifications below. Contact the Editorial Office if you have any problems or questions. You may change your password to something more familiar to you, or update any personal information including your e-mail address, at any time by clicking on the Change Details link icon at the top of your screen. Abstract, Manuscript, Tables, and Figures must be prepared as SEPARATE, individual files; the system requires that each of these files be uploaded separately and blocks incomplete manuscripts from being submitted to the office. Although Elsevier Editorial System presently accepts many file formats for the peer-review process, authors should use only those formats that are acceptable to the publisher, Elsevier, in order to ensure proper publication in the print issues. Please refer to the following individual sections for specific file requirements for text, tables, and figures. Each uploaded file must have a corresponding file extension (such as .doc, .tif). Adherence to the guidelines is essential, and faulty manuscripts will be returned to authors for correction before peer-review or simply rejected.

If the AJO office uploads a manuscript on behalf of an author, the Corresponding Author will receive an e-mail receipt of the manuscript and related notices regarding the manuscript. Once a manuscript has been uploaded into the system, status updates are available by logging into Corresponding Author's account.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Manuscript review and selection

Full-Length Articles, Editorials, and Perspectives are peer-reviewed. Only finely polished, publication ready manuscripts should be submitted to the AJO or risk possible rejection prior to peer review. In view of the large and increasing number of manuscripts submitted, the AJO now performs a triage of all submitted manuscripts to determine if they are appropriate and would likely be accepted following peer review. About 50% of manuscripts will be returned to authors because the content is not competitive with current manuscripts due to insufficient new material, repetitive material, poor design or poor writing. This is consistent with the pattern of major medical journals.

After an initial review of the manuscript, the Editor-in-Chief determines whether the manuscript is appropriate for the AJO and selects an Executive Editor from the Editorial Board who is an expert in the field and who will be responsible for guiding the manuscript through the review process. The Executive Editor then selects several outside reviewers to ensure that at least two reviews are completed. The AJO does not reveal the identity of its reviewers.

Once these reviews are completed, the Executive Editor critiques and synthesizes the comments of the reviewers, and provides additional Executive Editor's comments to the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief reviews the manuscript together with all comments and makes the publication decision, which is then e-mailed to the Corresponding Author, along with consolidated comments of the reviewers of the manuscript. Because of space constraints in the printed version, only about 20% of submitted Full-Length Articles are accepted. The AJO might not provide complete review of each manuscript but rather enough of a review to determine if acceptable for the AJO.

General manuscript preparation guidelines


Manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter that should include information on prior or duplicate publication or submission, as well as the originality of the manuscript and any other information that the authors want to convey to the Editor-in-Chief. The authors should indicate whether the manuscript was previously rejected or evaluated in any form by another journal, and they should describe specifically how they have improved the manuscript.

The principal investigator or the Corresponding Author of a manuscript containing original data must confirm in the cover letter that he or she "had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis as well as the decision to submit for publication." Cover letters for revised manuscripts must answer, point by point, any concerns noted by reviewers.
Manuscripts (including title page, abstract, text, references, figure captions, and tables) should be single-spaced on 21.5 x 28 cm (8.5 x 11 in.) pages. One-inch margins should be used on all sides. The right margin should be ragged, not justified.
Follow guidelines of style, terminology, measurement, and quantitation as set forth in the American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th ed. Oxford University Press, NY, 2007). Arial font size 12 is recommended, as this font causes the fewest problems during conversion to PDF.
The AJO encourages authors to report the visual acuity in the manuscript using the same nomenclature that was used in the study, provided the data was recorded in the Snellen system (using either meters or feet), decimal fraction or logMAR systems. The same visual acuity nomenclature should be presented throughout the manuscript. A Table of Equivalent Visual Acuity Measurements will be provided for the reader in each print issue of AJO. Although standardized reporting of visual acuity would be a better option, it has not yet been accepted by all research groups. The Snellen equivalent in feet should be noted in parentheses next to each visual acuity that is not in the Snellen format, in order to aid readers in the United States.
The AJO requests authors to ensure statistical expertise for a study that has statistical content. Statistical methods must be identified in the manuscript whenever they are used. Software programs used for statistical analyses should be identified so reviewers or readers may verify calculations. When P values are used, the actual P value (for example, P = .032) is preferred to an inequality (for example, P < .05). Reporting basic summary statistics, such as the mean and the standard error, as well as confidence limits, also helps the reader understand the conclusions of the study. Models such as analysis of variance, covariance, multiple regressions, and the like must be specified. A sample size calculation and power analysis should be included when appropriate. Authors should state the levels for alpha and beta errors and the clinically significant difference that was used to determine the power calculation. Numeric equivalents should precede all percentages, as in the following examples: "Of 80 patients, 20 (25%) had retinopathy" or "20 (25%) of 80 patients had retinopathy."

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Title page

The manuscript's title should be as brief as possible and no longer than 135 characters and spaces. The title page must include:
  1. The title of the article (informative and concise; avoid questions, declarative sentences, and abbreviations).
  2. The full name of each author and complete address of institutional affiliations. Academic degrees should not be provided.
  3. The name, address, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the Corresponding Author.

Once a manuscript has been submitted, the order and number of authors should not change.

Because the Journal requires that all authors meet and attest to the ICMJE standards of authorship during the submission process, it is understood that authors have contributed substantially to the design, study, and writing of the paper, at times perhaps equally. Authors should choose amongst themselves which order they will appear in the article listing without "dual" or shared positions, i.e. first author, corresponding author, etc. If further recognition for author contribution is desired, authors may choose to upload their protocol as part of the online-only supplementary material and refer to this document in their manuscript. Any other statement regarding equal contribution is not according to current Journal style practices.

The Corresponding Author will be responsible for all questions about the manuscript and for reprint requests. Only one author can be designated as Corresponding Author; the Corresponding Author need not be the first author on the manuscript. Select a Corresponding Author who will be located at the same address for an extended period in order to respond to post-publication correspondence. Corresponding authors that do not reply in an expeditious manner to all correspondence from AJO both before and after acceptance may be restricted from further submissions to the AJO.

Number the pages of the manuscript consecutively, beginning with the Title Page as page 1. For Full-Length Articles, the text should, in general, not exceed 8 single-spaced typewritten pages. Please use a spell-checker in addition to careful editing of the manuscript before submission. Authors should not add line numbering as this is automatically added by Elsevier Editorial System.

Organize and prepare the manuscript to include the following sections:

Introduction: Describe the purpose of the study, the research rationale, and any major hypothesis that was tested. The Introduction should present the hypothesis and limit references to only the most pertinent previous publications.

Methods: The first paragraph of the Methods section should describe all the specifics of the study design (see glossary of study designs below) and information about human informed consent or animal care. State whether the IRB approval was prospective (before the study began) or retrospective and indicate precisely what the IRB approved. Name of IRB that approved the research or provide a statement and rationale as to why the named IRB waived approval. Indicate proper informed consent for the treatment and/ or participation in the research, and confirm compliance with HIPAA, Clinical Trials registration (number and location of the registration), Investigational New Drug (IND) or Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) (provide number), and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines. If the IRB waived the need for approval of this research or study, then indicate adherence to the Declaration of Helsinki and all federal or state laws in your country. Authors cannot make the decision as to whether IRB approval is needed; your IRB should make that decision and provide a waiver if they feel it does not require IRB approval.

Methods section should also include setting (multicenter, institutional, or clinical practice); patients and study population (including patient numbers, selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization, and masking); intervention or observation procedure; and main outcome measure(s). Previously published procedures should be identified by reference only unless they are uncommon to AJO readers. Provide sufficient detail to enable others to duplicate the research. Use standard chemical or nonproprietary pharmaceutical nomenclature. Identify in parentheses specific sources by brand name, company, city, state, and/or country.

Results: Describe outcomes and measurements in an objective sequence with a minimum of discussion. Tables and figures should be cited in text in sequence. Data should be accompanied by confidence intervals (usually at the 95% interval) and exact P values or other indications of statistical significance.

Discussion: Elucidate (but do not reiterate) the results, identify any statistically or clinically significant limitations or qualifications of the study, provide responses to other and contradictory literature, and state the conclusions that are directly supported by the data. Excessive generalization and undue speculation should be avoided. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings, state whether and what additional study is required, and conclude with the clinical applications or implications supported by the study. The conclusions should be incorporated into the end of the discussion.

Authors should avoid statements of economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority (first publication) of the content unless you provide the literature search protocol used. Do not allude to work that has not been completed.


The AJO requires disclosure information from the authors in a specific format. The following information should appear, in the order indicated (labeled a through c), in the Acknowledgement section of the manuscript just prior to the References. The information will appear in the published article, along with the automatically-added contributions attestation made during the submission process. This information should not appear on the Title page of the manuscript of the manuscript.

a. Funding/Support: Any government and non-government support (e.g. commercial companies, foundations, etc.) must be acknowledged. Provide location of any grantors or commercial companies and any grant numbers.
b. Financial Disclosures: The disclosure statement for the manuscript should comprise ALL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES IN MEDICINE BY EVERY AUTHOR whether or not you judge them to be related to the submitted manuscript. This includes all personal fees such as income from honoraria, consulting, lectures, speakers' bureaus, expert testimony, commercial employment, stock or equity interests, or intellectual property rights (royalties, patents, licenses, copyright) as well as miscellaneous support such as drugs, equipment, travel expenses, writing assistance, administrative support, etc. Provide location of any commercial companies or grants mentioned. If you have no financial disclosures related or unrelated to this manuscript, you should state, "No financial disclosures."
c. Other Acknowledgments such as Statisticians, Medical Writers, Expert contributions. Provide location or institution of each person mentioned. Because readers may infer endorsement of the data and conclusions, all persons must give permission to be acknowledged and this must be confirmed in the cover letter.

The AJO is no longer using the ICMJE Disclosure form.

For further clarification, see "Conflict of interest in peer-review process and disclosure" in Author Information at and the following open access articles:

1. Liesegang TJ, Bartley GB. Toward transparency of financial disclosure. Ophthalmology 2014;121:2077-9.
2. Liesegang TJ, Bartley GB. Footnotes, acknowledgments, and authorship: toward greater responsibility, accountability, and transparency. Ophthalmology 2014;121:2297-8.

Appendixes should be used sparingly, but they are appropriate to provide survey forms, list the members of a study group, or complex formulas and information. Please note that Supplemental Material for the AJO website may be provided for Full-Length Articles and Perspectives at the time of acceptance.


Provide a structured abstract of 250 words or less with the following five headings:

Purpose: State the principal question or objective of the study and the major hypothesis tested, if any.

Design: Describe the study as retrospective or prospective. Identify the study design. Interventional studies should be listed as a randomized clinical trial, non-randomized clinical trial, or interventional case series (three or more cases). Observational studies should be listed as a case control study, cross-sectional study, cohort study, or observational case series (three or more cases). An experimental study should be listed as an animal study or laboratory investigation. A perspective, meta-analysis, or auto-designation study should be indicated, as appropriate.

Methods: Use the following subheadings under Methods as appropriate for your study or, alternatively, provide the same information in prose format:

  • Setting: Such as multicenter, institutional, or clinical practice.
  • Patient or Study Population: Including patient numbers (one or both eyes), selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, and masking.
  • Intervention or Observation Procedure(s)
  • Main Outcome Measure(s)
Results: Describe the outcome and measurements, when applicable. Results should be accompanied by data with confidence intervals and the exact level of statistical significance. Results should also identify any significant limitations or qualifications of the data.

Conclusions: State the conclusions directly supported by the data and describe the clinical applications. Avoid over-generalizations. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings, and note specific additional study required.

Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.


Restrict abbreviations to those that are widely used and understood by all ophthalmologists. Avoid abbreviations that have meaning only within the context of the specific manuscript. Introduce each abbreviation in parentheses after the first use of the full term in each portion of the submission including in the abstract, in the text, in the figures captions, and in the tables. Système International units and abbreviations of standard measurements, such as mm Hg, cm, and mL, are used without initial expansion. Avoid abbreviations in any titles, headings, or subheadings.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Digital figures
Digital figures must be uploaded individually into the Elsevier Editorial System according to publication-ready requirements. Figures CANNOT be embedded in the manuscript text file. Photographic figures should not be in Word, nor are PDFs, Excel files, or PowerPoint slides permitted for any figure due to their low native resolution.

a) AJO Requirements for Publication Quality Digital Figures:
Digital figures should be of high quality and in one of the following file formats only: TIFF (with LZW compression), JPEG (with "maximum quality" setting), or EPS. Line art and graphs only may be submitted in Word, if they were created in Microsoft Word or Excel.

Figures must be at least 3.5 inches wide, at least 300 dpi resolution, and a minimum of 1050 pixels wide. NIH guidelines for online figures suggest a minimum of 1500 pixels wide. Individual figure files should not be larger than 12 MB.

For multi-part figures, please ensure that the composite is clear, readable, and of sufficient resolution. Each part should be referred to by location (i.e., 1 Top Right, 2 Middle Left, etc.) rather than by letter. Do not put “part” labels on the face of figures. If the author desires to submit each part separately, an additional composite may be submitted to indicate placement.

Text on figures should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. Any text, arrows, and other symbols should be large enough to remain legible after reduction. All symbols or abbreviations that appear on the figures should be defined in the caption. Arial font is suggested for any figure text. Publication can be delayed by poor-quality figures.

b) Other General Figure Guidelines
Figures should be cropped to show only significant details. When a patient is identifiable in a photograph, the author(s) must supply the AJO with evidence of the patient's permission to publish the photograph. (The permission must be submitted to the AJO as a scanned document through Elsevier Editorial System.)

The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to withdraw a previously accepted manuscript if the author cannot produce high-quality figures in a timely manner to accompany the text.

Color Artwork
The authors should use color figures only when necessary. If a manuscript has been submitted and reviewed with color photos, it will be published in color unless the Editor-in-Chief elects otherwise after communication with the Corresponding Author. The Publisher requires authors to pay for color art that appears in their article. The cost for the first color figure is $650, and the cost for every subsequent color figure is $100. Authors will be billed for color figure(s) after the article has been published.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
All captions should be listed together on a Captions page after the references. Each caption should be numbered consecutively in the text, have a brief title, and contain a complete description of each figure. The brief title should specify the disease process or study patients that are in the manuscript. The title and caption should contain enough information so that the figure can be understood independently of the manuscript text and "stand alone". Use complete sentences for the captions except in the title, and avoid abbreviations. Single figures should not be numbered.

When multiple-panel figures are submitted, refer to each panel from Top left to Top right, then Bottom left to Bottom right. Do not use lettering (eg, A, B, C, etc) on the figures.

Example. FIGURE 1. Patient 3 with staphylococcal corneal abscess. (Top left) The patient's cornea is shown preoperatively with the abscess located superior to the visual axis, (Top right) 3 days postoperatively with the corneal transplant well centered and clear, and (Bottom left) 4 months postoperatively with a crystal clear cornea. (Bottom right) The patient, 1 year postoperatively, shows smooth corneal surface with all sutures removed.


Tables take up substantial space in the print journal and should be limited in number. The information in the text and tables should not be duplicative.

Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals by order of citation in the text. Single tables should not be numbered. Each table should have a brief title so that the reader can understand what is being displayed in the table without reference to the text. Each table should be submitted individually and separately from the manuscript text file. The table number and table title should be on the same line at the top of the table. The title and caption should contain enough information so that the table can be understood independently of the manuscript text and "stand alone". Avoid abbreviations in any titles. All abbreviations within the table and comments about the table should be included in a footnote to the table.

All tables should be created in a Microsoft Word document using the table tools. Do not format tables as columns or tabs. Do not use picture tools to create tables. Do not create tables in other programs and paste them into Word. Use additional pages when a table does not fit onto one page. Ensure that no information is hanging off of the page due to poor formatting.

Footnotes to tables are indicated by superscripted letters a, b, c, etc.


References should be numbered consecutively in the text and in the reference list. In the text, reference numbers are entered as superscripts. If you use an automated reference numbering software (eg, Endnote or Reference Manager) the linkage must be turned off.

The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. PubMed offers a useful reference checker at

References to journal articles should follow the current AMA format and include:

1) Authors' surnames and initials (list 6; for more than 6 authors, list the first 3 followed by "et al.")
2) Title of Article
3) Italicized Journal name (as abbreviated in PubMed)
4) Year
5) Volume number
6) Issue number
7) Inclusive page numbers

References to books should include:
1) The author or authors
2) Chapter title (if any)
3) Editor or editors (if any)
4) Book title
5) Edition (other than the first)
6) City of publication
7) Publisher
8) Copyright year
9) Inclusive pages of the chapter or section cited

Examples are as follows:
Journal article: Robinson MR, Reed G, Csaky KG, Polis MA, Whitcup SM. Immune-recovery uveitis in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;130(1):49-56.
Book: Rootman J, Stewart B, Goldberg RA. Orbital surgery: a conceptual approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1994:1-394.
Book chapter: Macsai MS, Mannis MJ, Huntley AC. Acne rosacea. In: Mannis MJ, Macsai MS, Huntley AC, editors. Eye and skin disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996:335-341.
A reference for an article accepted but not yet in print or online, indicate as "forthcoming": van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med. (forthcoming).
A reference for article accepted and published online but not yet in print, provide the DOI and the date of online publication (do not use ePub): van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med. doi: 10.1038.nm1024. 2012.02.25.

Unpublished data, such as studies in preparation or submitted for publication, posters, and unpublished abstracts the reader cannot retrieve in a literature search, are to be incorporated parenthetically in the text. The Corresponding Author is to provide authorization for use of this personal communication.

Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and other abstract references are discouraged. If used, ARVO abstract citations should appear parenthetically within the text, not as bibliographic references, in the exact format recommended by ARVO. Citations should include: (1) name of first author, (2) "IOVS", (3) year, (4) volume number, (5) "ARVO E-Abstract", and (6) program number. Eg., (Roska BM, et al. IOVS 2002;43:ARVO E-Abstract 1415).

Personal communications should be cited parenthetically in the text, as in this example: (Evans DW, written communication, September 1, 1997). The Corresponding Author should provide authorization for use of this personal communication.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

[dataset] 5. Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Internet references
Internet references should be limited to important Full-Length articles that are not available in print or have been updated on the Internet since initial print publication. If a print reference is available, it should be used. The online reference should be listed with complete information including title and authors with the addition of the URL address and accession date. The URL address and availability must be confirmed again with any revision submission. Because Internet articles frequently are not available at a future date, the authors must make a print copy of the material they are referencing from the Internet, hold it indefinitely, and provide it to the AJO at any time in the future.
Example: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Available at . Accessed November 12, 2006.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Accepted manuscript/supplemental material

The AJO also seeks to further enhance recognition for the contributors of the scientific content in the AJO. Therefore, the first author and the senior author (or both authors if there are only two) of accepted manuscripts will be asked to provide a biographic sketch (limited to 75 words) and a digital photo to be placed on the website linked with the online version at

With revision or acceptance of the manuscript, the Corresponding Author may submit Supplemental Material for consideration for posting on the Internet. Appropriate content may include expanded data sets and spreadsheets, additional digitized figures and illustrations, videos, or expanded techniques and methods sections. Supplemental Material must be submitted at the time of revision submission according to specifications, and such material will be edited. When uploading your Supplemental Material on the Attach Files page of Elsevier Editorial System, please choose Miscellaneous Material for all parts and label each part (eg, Supplemental Figure Caption, Supplemental Figure 1, Supplemental Video, etc.). A legend for each Supplemental Figure or Video should be provided. If you are including supplemental material with your submission, please note the following on your manuscript title page, "Supplemental Material available at" and also note, at the appropriate location in the manuscript and in parenthesis, (Supplemental Material at The Supplemental Material will be forwarded by the AJO office to Dr Peter Kaiser, the AJO Associate Editor supervising the Supplemental Material at

For Supplemental Material, the text must be in Microsoft Word format, and the digital audio/visual must adhere to the requirements for figures listed above.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Checklist for AJO submission

Below is a checklist of items required by the AJO for evaluation of a submission. These items should be included in each submission. Please be sure that you have thoroughly read the instructions for preparation and submission of your manuscript before submitting it. Otherwise, the peer reviewers may refuse to proceed with review.

• Cover Letter indicating the manuscript's category (Full-Length Article, Perspective, Editorial, Correspondence)
• Permission for figures if there is identifiable material or photograph .
• One copy of the manuscript, single-spaced and formatted according to the instructions.
• Title page
- Each author's complete name and affiliation. Academic degrees are no longer requested.
- The complete and correct address, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the Corresponding Author.
• Structured abstract limited to 250 words for Full-Length Articles and Perspectives
• Acknowledgments section to provide information about funding sources, financial disclosures, and to recognize statistical and other contributors.
• Appendix (if appropriate)
• References
• Figure Captions
• Tables
• Figures (properly formatted and labeled according to the instructions)
• CONSORT statement for Randomized Controlled Trials (if applicable).

Revised manuscripts

Revisions must be returned to the AJO within 1 month to retain revision status; after that time, the Editor-in-Chief may request another cycle of peer-review or reject the manuscript. The Corresponding Author must reply to each point made in the revision request and may state points of disagreement with the reviewer's comments. Please submit revisions in your account under "Submissions Needing Revision" on Elsevier Editorial System with the files prepared according to online manuscript submission guidelines. Please follow the instructions on the Elsevier Editorial System under "Guidelines for Revisions".

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Publication process

The Editor-in-Chief accepts the manuscript with the understanding that the authors cooperate in a timely manner with the production process, including any response to future correspondence from the AJO or its readers. The authors are required to provide an edited print-ready version of the manuscript at the final revision stage (or earlier). The Publisher employs copy editors that format the manuscript to AJO style but do not perform extensive editorial copyediting.

The article will then be processed into page proofs, with all art and tables in place. The Production Editor will send the Corresponding Author a galley proof by e-mail or mail, which should be corrected and returned within 48 hours. Authors must check their proofs very carefully, because approval indicates that all copyediting changes have been accepted unless corrections are returned to the Production Editor. A second proof will not be provided. Authors must also answer any copyediting queries within the proof. Notification of the costs for printing illustrations in color and page charges will be provided at this proofing stage. An order form for the article reprints will be sent to the Corresponding Author before publication. Reprints should be ordered prior to publication.

Good quality illustrations using the above guidelines must be made available to the printer; the Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to withdraw acceptance at any time if the images do not meet expectations, the authors do not provide them in a timely fashion, or other aspects of the publication process are not diligently followed to the satisfaction of the Editor-in-Chief.

The authors may participate in scientific programs and presentations providing the highlights of the manuscript but should be aware that the manuscript acceptance will be withdrawn if it is published in substantive content elsewhere in print or electronically prior to the AJO publication, per the Policy on Duplicate Publication. After publication of a manuscript in the AJO, the authors and readers may monitor any future citations of the article by specialized software at

AJO on the internet

The AJO Table of Contents and Abstracts for each month are available on the Internet at Forthcoming issue line-ups can also be received through e-mail by signing up for ScienceDirect. The full text of AJO is available online and to recipients of ScienceDirect if they are subscribers to the print edition or if an article has been made open access by the author or funder. Supplemental Material augments Full-Length Articles and Perspectives, and special features present new content on the electronic AJO. InternetAdvance offers the manuscripts that have been accepted but not yet printed in the AJO. Book Reviews and Announcements are also listed in the print issue with more complete information available at The website provides a keyword search and an electronic link to abstracts for many of the references in published material. Authors may track any future citations to their AJO printed manuscripts at

AJO policies

If the manuscript has been previously rejected or evaluated in any form by another journal, the authors should note that in the cover letter and indicate how they have improved the manuscript.

To protect the mission of the AJO as a peer-reviewed journal, only original material will be published in the AJO. Authors who distribute e-prints, preprints, reprints, or substantive content in any format, including digital, of an article into the public domain before publication risk losing the opportunity to publish in the AJO. When authors submit material for publication in the AJO, they must claim the copyright and must transmit copyright of their material to the AJO. Publication of the material elsewhere (duplicate publication) without permission of the AJO is a copyright infringement.

InternetAdvance at shows a galley of each article that has been accepted for publication but has not yet appear in print. This permits an article to appear before the print publication without endangering the mission of the peer-reviewed journal.

The AJO discourages statements of priority (such as "we are the first to report...") because of the inability to be familiar with all published works or presentations on a subject. Either consider deleting the statement of priority or provide a standard statement that adheres to AJO policy, such as "we are unaware of previous reports of this finding (phenomenon, procedure, or other appropriate wording) and could find no reference to it in a computerized search (include the name of the database, such as PubMed)."

The AJO encourages the submission of multicenter studies. On the title page, preferably the writing group authors should be listed along with the group name (eg, Smith TT, Jones JJ, on behalf of the Pediatric Amblyopia Study Group). Other group members should be listed in an appendix before the references. When the study group name alone is listed on the title page, the Copyright Transfer Agreement requires only the original signature of the Corresponding Author.

The AJO and the scientific community encourage presentation at meetings. Presenters planning to submit information to a peer-reviewed journal, however, should not share their slides, materials, or additional information with newspapers or tabloids before publication. If the presenter is given a preprint of a planned publication by a newspaper or tabloid, the presenter again could ask the writer to withhold the information until after the information has been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Violations could result in public reprimand regarding copyright infringement and may result in a presenter being subjected to greater scrutiny when future materials are considered for publication in the AJO.
Errors may be noted in published articles that require the publication of a correction or an erratum. Most corrections are minor. Some errors, however, may negate the value of the initial manuscript. These do not include inadequacies exposed by the emergence of new scientific information, in which case no corrections or withdrawals are needed.

If substantial doubts arise about the honesty of a work, either submitted or published, it is the Editor-in-Chief's responsibility to ensure that the possible fraud is addressed. It is not usually the task of the Editor-in-Chief to conduct a full investigation or to make a determination; that responsibility lies with the institution where the work was done or with the funding agency. The Editor-in-Chief should be promptly informed of the final decision of the institution involved, and if a fraudulent article has been published, the AJO will print a retraction. If the study was not under the aegis of an IRB or if this method of investigation does not result in a satisfactory conclusion, the Editor-in-Chief may choose to publish an expression of concern with an explanation or a full retraction, following an attempt for clarification from the authors.

The Editor-in-Chief may ask the authors' institution to assure the AJO of the validity of earlier work published in the AJO or to retract it.

The Editorial Board and reviewers should respect authors' confidentiality because authors have entrusted the AJO with the results of their scientific work and creative effort. Authors' rights may be violated by disclosure of the confidential details of the review of their manuscript.

Reviewers also have rights to confidentiality, which must be respected. Editors should not disclose information about manuscripts (including their receipt, their content, their status in the reviewing process, their criticism by reviewers, or their ultimate fate) to anyone other than the authors themselves and reviewers.


 About the Journal 

Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research (JOVR) is the official scientific publication of the Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. JOVR is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal with the mission to disseminate research, information and viewpoints on different aspects of ophthalmology and vision science including basic and clinical research aiming to advance the science, technology, ethics and art of ophthalmology. The scope of the journal is intended to include not only clinical ophthalmology, but also related basic science disciplines that contribute to the science of vision.

 Scope of the journal 

The journal covers basic, translational and clinical studies related to different subspecialty fields including cornea and ocular surface, lens and cataract, glaucoma, vitreoretinal disorders, uveitis, ocular oncology & pathology, neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology & strabismus, and ophthalmic plastic & reconstructive surgery. Other areas of interest include ocular imaging & surgical techniques and ophthalmic epidemiology, in addition to controversial and challenging topics.

 The Editorial Process

A manuscript will be reviewed for possible publication with the understanding that it is being submitted to Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research alone at that point in time and has not been published anywhere, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere. The journal expects that authors would authorize one of them to correspond with the Journal for all matters related to the manuscript. All manuscripts received are duly acknowledged. On submission, editors review all submitted manuscripts initially for suitability for formal review. Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific or technical flaws, or lack of a significant message are rejected before proceeding for formal peer-review. Manuscripts that are unlikely to be of interest to the Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research readers are also liable to be rejected at this stage itself.

Manuscripts that are found suitable for publication in Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research are sent to two or more expert reviewers. During submission, the contributor is requested to provide names of two or three qualified reviewers who have had experience in the subject of the submitted manuscript, but this is not mandatory. The reviewers should not be affiliated with the same institutes as the contributor/s. However, the selection of these reviewers is at the sole discretion of the editor. The journal follows a double-blind review process, wherein the reviewers and authors are unaware of each other’s identity. Every manuscript is also assigned to a member of the editorial team, who based on the comments from the reviewers takes a final decision on the manuscript. The comments and suggestions (acceptance/ rejection/ amendments in manuscript) received from reviewers are conveyed to the corresponding author. If required, the author is requested to provide a point by point response to reviewers’ comments and submit a revised version of the manuscript. This process is repeated till reviewers and editors are satisfied with the manuscript.

Manuscripts accepted for publication are copy edited for grammar, punctuation, print style, and format. Page proofs are sent to the corresponding author. The corresponding author is expected to return the corrected proofs within three days. It may not be possible to incorporate corrections received after that period. The whole process of submission of the manuscript to final decision and sending and receiving proofs is completed online. To achieve faster and greater dissemination of knowledge and information, the journal publishes articles online as ‘Ahead of Print’ immediately on acceptance.

 Clinical trial registry  

Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research favors registration of clinical trials and is a signatory to the Statement on publishing clinical trials in Indian biomedical journals. Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research would publish clinical trials that have been registered with a clinical trial registry that allows free online access to public. Registration in the following trial registers is acceptable:;;;;; and This is applicable to clinical trials that have begun enrollment of subjects in or after June 2008. Clinical trials that have commenced enrollment of subjects prior to June 2008 would be considered for publication in Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research only if they have been registered retrospectively with clinical trial registry that allows unhindered online access to public without charging any fees.

 Authorship Criteria

Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to each of the three components mentioned below: 

  1. Concept and design of study or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data;
  2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
  3. Final approval of the version to be published.

Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Each contributor should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content of the manuscript. The order of naming the contributors should be based on the relative contribution of the contributor towards the study and writing the manuscript. Once submitted the order cannot be changed without written consent of all the contributors. The journal prescribes a maximum number of authors for manuscripts depending upon the type of manuscript, its scope and number of institutions involved (vide infra). The authors should provide a justification, if the number of authors exceeds these limits.

 Contribution Details

Contributors should provide a description of contributions made by each of them towards the manuscript. Description should be divided in following categories, as applicable: concept, design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review. Authors' contributions will be printed along with the article. One or more author should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole from inception to published article and should be designated as 'guarantor'. 

 Conflicts of Interest/ Competing Interests

All authors of must disclose any and all conflicts of interest they may have with publication of the manuscript or an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented. Authors should also disclose conflict of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript.

 Submission of Manuscripts

All manuscripts must be submitted on-line through the website First time users will have to register at this site. Registration is free but mandatory. Registered authors can keep track of their articles after logging into the site using their user name and password. Authors do not have to pay for submission, processing or publication of articles. If you experience any problems, please contact the editorial office by e-mail at

The submitted manuscripts that are not as per the “Instructions to Authors” would be returned to the authors for technical correction, before they undergo editorial/ peer-review. Generally, the manuscript should be submitted in the form of two separate files:

[1] Title Page/First Page File/cover letter:

This file should provide

  1. The type of manuscript (Original Article, Review Article, Case Report, Letter to Editor, Surgical Technique, etc.), title of the manuscript, running title, names of all authors/ contributors (with their highest academic degrees, designation and affiliations) and name(s) of department(s) and/ or institution(s) to which the work should be credited, . All information which can reveal your identity should be here. Use text/rtf/doc files. Do not zip the files.
  2. The total number of pages, total number of figures and word counts separately for abstract and for the text (excluding the references, tables and abstract).
  3. Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these;
  4. Acknowledgement, if any. One or more statements should specify 1) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a departmental chair; 2) acknowledgments of technical help; and 3) acknowledgments of financial and material support, which should specify the nature of the support. This should be included in the title page of the manuscript and not in the main article file.
  5. If the manuscript was presented as part at a meeting, the organization, place, and exact date on which it was read. A full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant publication of the same or very similar work. Any such work should be referred to specifically, and referenced in the new paper. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted paper, to help the editor decide how to handle the matter.
  6. Registration number in case of a clinical trial and where it is registered (name of the registry and its URL)
  7. Conflicts of Interest of each author/ contributor. A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest, if that information is not included in the manuscript itself or in an authors' form
  8. Criteria for inclusion in the authors’/ contributors’ list
  9. A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this document have been met, and that each author believes that the manuscript represents honest work, if that information is not provided in another form (see below); and
  10. The name, address, postal code, e-mail, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs, if that information is not included on the manuscript itself.


[2] Blinded Article file: The main text of the article, beginning from Abstract till References should be in this file. The file must not contain any mention of the authors' names or initials or the institution at which the study was done or acknowledgements. Page headers/running title can include the title but not the authors' names. Manuscripts not in compliance with the Journal's blinding policy will be returned to the corresponding author. Use rtf/doc files. Do not zip the files. Limit the file size to 1 MB. Please do not incorporate images in the file. If file size is large, graphs can be submitted as images separately without incorporating them in the article file to reduce the size of the file. The pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the first page of the blinded article file.

[3] Figures: Submit good quality color figures. Each figure should be less than 2 MB in size. Size of the figure can be reduced by decreasing the actual height and width of the figures (keep up to 1600 x 1200 pixels or 5-6 inches). Figures can be submitted as jpeg files. Please do not zip the files. Legends for the figures should be included at the end of the article file. 

[4] The contributors' / copyright transfer form (template provided below) has to be submitted in original with the signatures of all the contributors within two weeks of submission via courier, fax or email as a scanned image. Print ready hard copies of the images (one set) or digital images should be sent to the journal office at the time of submitting revised manuscript. High resolution images (up to 5 MB each) can be sent by email.

Contributors’ form / copyright transfer form can be submitted online from the authors’ area on

 Preparation of Manuscripts

Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with "Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (October 2008). The uniform requirements and specific requirement of Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research are summarized below. Before submitting a manuscript, contributors are requested to check for the latest instructions available. Instructions are also available from the website of the journal ( and from the manuscript submission site

Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research accepts manuscripts written in American English.

 Copies of any permission(s)

It is the responsibility of authors/ contributors to obtain permissions for reproducing any copyrighted material. A copy of the permission obtained must accompany the manuscript. Copies of any and all published articles or other manuscripts in preparation or submitted elsewhere that are related to the manuscript must also accompany the manuscript. The material should be sent to any of the two addresses given above.

 Types of Manuscripts

Original Articles:

These include randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic test, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case-control series, and surveys with high response rate. The text of original articles amounting to up to 3500 words (excluding abstract, references and tables) should be divided into sections with the headings Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Tables and Figure legends.

Abstract: It should be divided into sections with the headings “Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusion” and it should be provided in maximum 250 words.

Keywords: Three to six keywords should be included according to the MeSH terms.

Introduction: State the purpose and summarize the rationale for the study or observation. 

Methods: It should include and describe the following aspects:

Ethics: When reporting studies on human beings, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (available at For prospective studies involving human participants, authors are expected to mention about approval of (regional/ national/ institutional or independent Ethics Committee or Review Board, obtaining informed consent from adult research participants and obtaining assent for children aged over 7 years participating in the trial. The age beyond which assent would be required could vary as per regional and/ or national guidelines. Ensure confidentiality of subjects by desisting from mentioning participants’ names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution’s or a national research council’s guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.
Evidence for approval by a local Ethics Committee (for both human as well as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand. Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA and World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Humans for studies involving experimental animals and human beings, respectively). The journal will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable. A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the ‘Methods’ section.

Study Design:Selection and Description of Participants: Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.

Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (

Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs:

InitiativeType of StudySource
CONSORTRandomized controlled trials
STARDStudies of diagnostic accuracy
QUOROMSystematic reviews and meta-analyseshttp://www.consort-
STROBEObservational studies in epidemiology
MOOSEMeta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiologyhttp://www.consort-

Statistical Analysis: Whenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Authors should report losses to observation (such as, dropouts from a clinical trial). When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal', 'significant', 'correlations', and 'sample'. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used. Use upper italics (P 0.048). For all P values include the exact value and not less than 0.05 or 0.001. Mean differences in continuous variables, proportions in categorical variables and relative risks including odds ratios and hazard ratios should be accompanied by their confidence intervals.

Results: Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Extra- or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where it will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can be published only in the electronic version of the journal.

When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included.

Discussion: Include summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation); Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now?, what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by this study; and Future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research).
Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. In particular, contributors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. New hypotheses may be stated if needed, however they should be clearly labeled as such.


Review Articles:

It is expected that these articles would be written by individuals who have done substantial work on the subject or are considered experts in the field. A short summary of the work done by the contributor(s) in the field of review should accompany the manuscript.

The text of review articles amounting to up to 4000 words (excluding abstract, references and tables). The manuscript should have an unstructured abstract(maximum 250 words) representing an accurate summary of the article. The section titles would depend upon the topic reviewed. Authors submitting review article should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

The journal expects the contributors to give post-publication updates on the subject of review. The update should be brief, covering the advances in the field after the publication of the article and should be sent as a letter to editor, as and when major development occurs in the field.



Perspectives follow the same formatting guidelines as Review Articles but are more prospective and speculative, and may take a narrower field of view. This type of manuscripts should contain novel information of significant interest to ophthalmologists and are intended to stimulate discussion and new experimental approaches.


Case Reports:

New, interesting and rare cases can be reported. They should be unique, describing a great diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and providing a learning point for the readers. Cases with clinical significance or implications will be given priority. These communications could be of up to 1200 words (excluding abstract and references) and should have the following headings: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, References (up to 15 references), Tables and Legends in that order.

Abstract should be divided into sections with the headings “Purpose, Case Report, and Conclusion” and it should be provided in maximum 200 words.


Surgical Technique:

New surgical techniques can be arranged to be presented, accompanied by a complete description of the Introduction, Surgical Method, Results, and Discussion.

These manuscripts should be provided in maximum 1500 words excluding abstract and 15 references.

UnstructuredAbstract should be prepared in maximum 250 words.


Photo Essays:

Images and photographs of interesting or educational content can be presented as photo essays. The manuscript should not exceed 500 words and maximum 5 references.


Letter to Editor:

These should be short and decisive observations. They should preferably be related to articles previously published in the Journal or views expressed in the journal. They should not be preliminary observations that need a later paper for validation. The letter could have up to 500 words and 5 references. It could be generally authored by not more than four authors.



Editorials are usually written on invitation by the Editor-in-Chief, regarding articles scheduled to appear in the corresponding issue or describing issues of special importance.



Clinical Practice Guidelines, Challenging Cases and News.


References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order). Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in superscript with square bracket after the punctuation marks. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. Use the style of the examples below, which are based on the formats used by the NLM in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Use complete name of the journal for non-indexed journals. Avoid using abstracts as references. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.
The commonly cited types of references are shown here, for other types of references such as newspaper items please refer to ICMJE Guidelines ( or

Articles in Journals

  1. Standard journal article (for up to six authors): Jain S, Aref AA. Senile dementia and glaucoma: Evidence for a common link. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2015;10:178-183
  2. Standard journal article (for more than six authors): List the first six contributors followed by et al: Roessler GF, Djalali Talab Y, Dietlein TS, Dinslage S, Plange N, Walter P, et al. Partial coherence laser interferometry in highly myopic versus emmetropic eyes. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2014; 9:169–173.
  3. Volume with supplement: Otranto D, Capelli G, Genchi C: Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis. Parasites & Vectors 2009; Suppl 1:S2

Books and Other Monographs

  • Personal author(s): Parija SC. Textbook of Medical Parasitology. 3rd ed. All India Publishers and Distributors. 2008.
  • Editor(s), compiler(s) as author: Garcia LS, Filarial Nematodes In: Garcia LS (editor) Diagnostic Medical Parasitology ASM press Washington DC 2007: pp 319-356.
  • Chapter in a book: Nesheim M C. Ascariasis and human nutrition. In Ascariasis and its prevention and control, D. W. T. Crompton, M. C. Nesbemi, and Z. S. Pawlowski (eds.). Taylor and Francis,London, U.K.1989, pp. 87–100.

Electronic Sources as reference

Journal article on the Internet: Parija SC, Khairnar K. Detection of excretory Entamoeba histolytica DNA in the urine, and detection of E. histolytica DNA and lectin antigen in the liver abscess pus for the diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess .BMC Microbiology 2007, 7:41.doi:10.1186/1471-2180-7-41.


  • Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material.
  • Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable.
  • Number tables, in Arabic numerals, consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.
  • Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.
  • Spell out all abbreviations that are used in each table in footnotes  (for instance: IOP, intraocular pressure).
  • Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote.
  • For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||,¶ , **, ††, ‡‡
  • Tables with their legends should be provided at the end of the text after the references. The tables along with their number should be cited at the relevant place in the text.
  • Do not include the tables in the First page or Article files; please upload each table as a multimedia file.


  • Upload the figures in JPEG format. The file size should be within 1024 kb in size while uploading.
  • Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.
  • Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size. The lettering for figures should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit the width of a printed column.
  • Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.
  • Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves.
  • When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied.
  • The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.
  • If photographs of individuals are used, their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.
  • If a figure has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.
  • Figure legends: Provide figure legends in maximum 600 characters. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend. Explain the internal scale (magnification) and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
  • Final figures for print production: Send sharp, glossy, un-mounted, color photographic prints, with height of 4 inches and width of 6 inches at the time of submitting the revised manuscript. Print outs of digital photographs are not acceptable. If digital images are the only source of images, ensure that the image has minimum resolution of 300 dpi or 1800 x 1600 pixels in TIFF format. Send the images on a CD. Each figure should have a label pasted (avoid use of liquid gum for pasting) on its back indicating the number of the figure, the running title, top of the figure and the legends of the figure. Do not write the contributor/s' name/s. Do not write on the back of figures, scratch, or mark them by using paper clips.
  • The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size. 
Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy 

Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures unless they have obtained informed consent from the patients. The journal abides by ICMJE guidelines:

1) Authors, not the journals nor the publisher, need to obtain the patient consent form before the publication and have the form properly archived. The consent forms are not to be uploaded with the cover letter or sent through email to editorial or publisher offices.

2) If the manuscript contains patient images that preclude anonymity, or a description that has obvious indication to the identity of the patient, a statement about obtaining informed patient consent should be indicated in the manuscript. 

Sending a revised manuscript 

The revised version of the manuscript should be submitted online in a manner similar to that used for submission of the manuscript for the first time. However, there is no need to submit the “First Page” or “Cover Letter” file while submitting a revised version. When submitting a revised manuscript, contributors are requested to include, the ‘referees’ remarks along with point to point clarification at the beginning in the revised file itself. In addition, they are expected to mark the changes as underlined or colored text in the article.

Reprints and proofs 

Journal provides no free printed reprints. Authors can purchase reprints, payment for which should be done at the time of submitting the proofs.

Publication schedule

The journal publishes articles on its website immediately on acceptance and follows a ‘continuous publication’ schedule. Articles are compiled for ‘print on demand’ semiannual issues.

Manuscript submission, processing and publication charges 

The journal does not charge for submission and processing of the manuscripts.


The entire contents of the Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research are protected under Indian and international copyrights. The Journal, however, grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable non-commercial purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The journal also grants the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.


Cover letter

  • Signed by all contributors
  • Previous publication / presentations mentioned
  • Source of funding mentioned
  • Conflicts of interest disclosed


  • Last name and given name provided along with Middle name initials (where applicable)
  • Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided
  • Number of contributors restricted as per the instructions
  • Identity not revealed in paper except title page (e.g. name of the institute in Methods, citing previous study as 'our study', names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs, etc.)


Presentation and format

  • Arial font (First Page and Main text)
  • Double spacing
  • Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides
  • Page numbers included at bottom
  • Title page contains all the desired information
  • Running title provided (not more than 50 characters)
  • Abstract provided according to the journal's instructions
  • Keywords provided according to the MeSH terms
  • Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS)
  • The references cited in the text should be after punctuation marks, in superscript with square bracket
  • References according to the journal's instructions, punctuation marks checked
  • Send the article file without ‘Track Changes’

Language and grammar

  • Uniformly American English
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation at its first use in the title, abstract, keywords and text separately unless it is a standard unit of measure. Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out
  • Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out
  • Check the manuscript for spelling, grammar and punctuation errors
  • If a product is cited, supply complete manufacturer's information (product name and model, manufacturer, city and state/country)
  • Measurements’ unit should be in accordance with International System of Units
  • Species names should be in italics

Tables and figures

  • No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text
  • Actual numbers from which graphs drawn, provided
  • Figures necessary and of good quality (colour)
  • Table and figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman)
  • Labels pasted on back of the photographs (no names written)
  • Figure legends provided (maximum 600 characters)
  • Patients' privacy maintained (if not permission taken)
  • Credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided
  • Spell out each abbreviation used in the table/figure as a footnote or at the end of the figure legend
Contributors' form 

(to be modified as applicable and one signed copy attached with the manuscript)

Journal Title: Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research

Manuscript Title: _______________________________________________________________________________

Manuscript Number: _______________________________________________________________________________

I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Each author confirms they meet the criteria for authorship as established by the ICMJE. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter.

I/We hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Journal, in the event that such work is published by the Journal. The Journal shall own the work, including 1) copyright; 2) the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3) the right to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4) the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format.

We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf.

All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.


            Name                                       Signature                                  Date signed

1 ————————————     —————————     —————

2 ————————————     —————————     —————

3 ————————————     —————————     —————  

4 ————————————     —————————     —————  

5 ————————————     —————————     —————  

6 ————————————     —————————     —————   (Additional signatures may be added provided the authors meet the ICMJE criteria stated above)


Click here to download instructions

Click here to download copyright form


These ready to use templates are made to help the contributors write as per the requirements of the Journal.

Save the templates on your computer and use them with a word processor program. 
Click open the file and save as the manuscript file.

In the program keep 'Document Map' and 'Comments' on from 'View' menu to navigate through the file. 

Download Template for Original Articles/ABSTRACT Reports. (.DOT file)

Download Template for Case Reports.  (.DOT file)

Download Template for Review Articles.  (.DOT file)

Download Template for Letter to the Editor.  (.DOT file)

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