Essay On Scientific Discoveries Of 20th And 21st Century

  • Achinstein, Peter: 1968, Concepts of Science, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar

  • Achinstein, Peter: 1971, Law and Explanation, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Achinstein, Peter: 1974, ‘History and Philosophy of Science: A Reply to Cohen’, in Suppe (1974b), pp. 350–360.Google Scholar

  • Agassi, Joseph: 1964, ‘The Nature of Scientific Problems and Their Roots in Metaphysics’, in Bunge (1964), pp. 189–211. Reprinted in Agassi ( 1975 ), pp. 208–239.Google Scholar

  • Agassi, Joseph: 1975, Science in Flux, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar

  • Asquith, Peter, Ian Hacking (eds.): 1979, PSA 1978, Vol. 2, Philosophy of Science Assn., East Lansing, Michigan.Google Scholar

  • Bantz, David: 1980, David: 1980, ‘The Structure of Discovery: Evolution of Structural Accounts of Chemical Bonding’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • Bartley, W. W.: 1964, ‘Rationality Versus the Theory of Rationality’, in Bunge ( 1964 ), pp. 3–31.Google Scholar

  • Belnap, Nuel, Thomas Steel: 1976, The Logic of Questions and Answers, Yale Univ. Press, New Haven.Google Scholar

  • Blackwell, Richard: 1969, Discovery in the Physical Sciences, Notre Dame Univ. Press, Notre Dame, Indiana.Google Scholar

  • Blackwell, Richard: 1976, ‘Scientific Discovery and the Laws of Logic’, The New Scholasticism 50, 333–344.Google Scholar

  • Buchler, Justus (ed.): 1955, Philosophical Writings of Peirce, Dover, New York.Google Scholar

  • Bunge, Mario (ed.): 1964, The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar

  • Burian, Richard: 1977, ‘More Than a Marriage of Convenience: On the Inextricability of History and Philosophy of Science’, Philosophy of Science 44, 1–42.Google Scholar

  • Butterfleld, Herbert: 1965, The Whig Interpretation of History, Norton, New York.Google Scholar

  • Campbell, Donald T.: 1960, ‘Blind Variation and Selective Retention in Creative Thought as in Other Knowledge Processes’, Psychological Review 67, 380–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Campbell, Donald T.: 1974, ‘Unjustified Variation and Selective Retention in Scientific Discovery’, in F. S. Ayala and T. Dobzhansky (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Biology, MacMillan, London, pp. 139–161.Google Scholar

  • Darden, Lindley: 1976, ‘Reasoning in Scientific Change: Charles Darwin, Hugo de Vries, and the Discovery of Segregation’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 7, 127–169.Google Scholar

  • Darden, Lindley: 1980, ‘Theory Construction in Genetics’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • Darden, Lindley, Nancy Maull: 1977, ‘Interfield Theories’, Philosophy of Science 44, 43–64.Google Scholar

  • Dewey, John: 1929, The Quest for Certainty, Putnam, New York.Google Scholar

  • Edge, David, Michael Mulkay: 1976, Astronomy Transformed: The Emergence of Radio Astronomy in Britain, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar

  • Einstein, Albert: 1934, ‘Paul Ehrenfest In Memoriam’, reprinted in Out of My Later Years, The Citadel Press, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1956, pp. 236–239.Google Scholar

  • Feigl, Herbert: 1970, ‘Beyond Peaceful Coexistence’, in Stuewer ( 1970 ), pp. 3–11.Google Scholar

  • Feyerabend, Paul: 1962, ‘Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism’, in H. Feigl, G. Maxwell (eds.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 3, Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 28–97.Google Scholar

  • Feyerabend, Paul: 1975, Against Method, New Left Books, London.Google Scholar

  • Fine, Arthur: 1976, ‘The Young Einstein and the Old Einstein’, in R. S. Cohen et al. (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, pp. 145– 160.Google Scholar

  • Finocchiaro, Maurice A.: 1973, History of Science as Explanation, Wayne State Univ. Press, Detroit.Google Scholar

  • Grene, Marjorie: 1977, ‘Philosophy of Medicine: Prolegomena to a Philosophy of Science’, in Suppe and Asquith ( 1977 ), pp. 77–93.Google Scholar

  • Gruber, Howard, Paul Barrett: 1974, Darwin on Man, with Darwin’s Early and Unpublished Notebooks, Dutton, New York.Google Scholar

  • Gutting, Gary: 1973, ‘A Defense of the Logic of Discovery’, Philosophical Forum 4, 384–405.Google Scholar

  • Gutting, Gary: 1980, ‘Science as Discovery’, Revue Internationale de Philosophie, forthcoming.Google Scholar

  • Hamblin, C. L.: 1958, ‘Questions’, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 36, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Hanson, Norwood Russell: 1958a, Patterns of Discovery, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Hanson, Norwood Russell: 1958b, ‘The Logic of Discovery’, Journal of Philosophy, 55, 1073–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Hanson, Norwood Russell: 1960, ‘Is There a Logic of Scientific Discovery?’, in H. Feigl, G. Maxwell (eds.), Current Issues in the Philosophy of Science, Holt, Rinehart, Winston, New York, pp. 20–42.Google Scholar

  • Hanson, Norwood Russell: 1963, ‘Retroductive Inference’, in B. Baumrin (ed.), Philosophy of Science: The Delaware Seminar, John Wiley, New York, pp. 21–37.Google Scholar

  • Hanson, Norwood Russell: 1967, ‘An Anatomy of Discovery’, Journal of Philosophy 64, 321–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Harman, Gilbert: 1965, ‘The Inference to the Best Explanation’, Philosophical Review 64, 88–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Harman, Gilbert: 1968, ‘Enumerative Induction as Inference to the Best Explanation’, Journal of Philosophy 65, 529–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Hempel, Carl G.: 1965, Aspects of Scientific Explanation, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar

  • Hempel, Carl G.: 1966, Philosophy of Natural Science, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar

  • Hermann, Armin: 1971, The Genesis of Quantum Theory ( 1899–1913 ), MIT Press, Camrbridge.Google Scholar

  • Hesse, Mary B.: 1961, Forces and Fields, Nelson, London.Google Scholar

  • Hesse, Mary B.: 1963, Models and Analogies in Science, Sheed & Ward, London; 2nd edition, enlarged, Univ. of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1966.Google Scholar

  • Hesse, Mary B.: 1970, ‘Hermeticism and Historiography’, in Stuewer (1970), pp. 134– 162.Google Scholar

  • Hesse, Mary B.: 1974, The Structure of Scientific Inference, Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar

  • Holton, Gerald: 1973, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Holton, Gerald: 1978, The Scientific Imagination: Case Studies, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Klein, Martin J.: 1962, ‘Max Planck and the Beginnings of the Quantum Theory’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 1, 459–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Klein, Martin J.: 1963, ‘Planck, Entropy, and Quanta, 1901-1906’, The Natural Philosopher 1, 83–108.Google Scholar

  • Klein, Martin J.: 1964, ‘The Origins of Ehrenfest’s Adiabatic Principle’, in H. Guerlac (ed.), Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on the History of Science, Hermann, Paris, pp. 801–804.Google Scholar

  • Klein, Martin J.: 1966, ‘Thermodynamics and Quanta in Planck’s Work’, Physics Today 19, 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Klein, Martin J.: 1970, Paul Ehrenfest, Vol. 1, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar

  • Koestler, Arthur: 1959, The Sleepwalkers, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar

  • Kordig, Carl: 1978, ‘Discovery and Justification’, Philosophy of Science45, 110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Kuhn, Thomas S.: 1962a, ‘The Historical Structure of Scientific Discovery’, Science 136, 760–764. Reprinted in Kuhn, The Essential Tension, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977, pp. 165–177.Google Scholar

  • Kuhn, Thomas S.: 1962b, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago: 2nd edition, enlarged, 1970.Google Scholar

  • Kuhn, Thomas S.: 1978, The Black-Body Problem and the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Lakatos, Imre: 1970, ‘Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes’, in Lakatos and Musgrave ( 1970 ), pp. 91–196.Google Scholar

  • Lakatos, Imre: 1971, ‘History of Science and Its Rational Reconstructions’, in R. Buck and R. S. Cohen (eds.), Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 8, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar

  • Lakatos, Imre, Alan Musgrave (eds.): 1970, Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Laudan, Larry: 1977, Progress and Its Problems, Univ. of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar

  • Laudan, Larry: 1979, ‘The Philosophy of Progress…’ in Asquith and Hacking (1979), forthcoming.Google Scholar

  • Maull, Nancy: 1980, ‘Comment on Schaffner’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • McMullin, Ernan: 1974, ‘Logicality and Rationality: A Comment on Toulmin’s Theory of Science’, in Seeger and Cohen ( 1974 ), pp. 415–430.Google Scholar

  • Meyer, Michel: 1979, Decouverte et Justification en Science, Editions Klincksieck, Paris.Google Scholar

  • Monk, Robert: 1976, ‘The Logic of Discovery’, Philosophy Research Archives 3, 1–51.Google Scholar

  • Moran, Bruce: 1980, ‘Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel: Informal Communication and the Aristocratic Context of Discovery’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • Nickles, Thomas: 1974, ‘Heuristics and Justification in Scientific Research: Comments on Shapere, in Suppe (1974b), pp. 571–589.Google Scholar

  • Nickles, Thomas: 1976, ‘Theory Generalization, Problem Reduction, and the Unity of Science’, in R.S. Cohen et al(eds.), PSA 1974 Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, pp. 33–75.Google Scholar

  • Nickles, Thomas: 1977, ‘On the Independence of Singular Causal Explanation in Social Science: Archaeology’, Philosophy of the Social Sciences 7, 163–187.Google Scholar

  • Nickles, Thomas: 1978,‘Scientific Problems Problems and Constraints’, in P. Asquith and I. Hacking (eds.) PSA 1978, Vol. 1, Philosophy of Science Assn., East Lansing, Michigan, pp. 134–148.Google Scholar

  • Nickles, Thomas (ed.): 1980, Scientific Discovery. Case Studies, Proceedings of the First Leonard Conference, Vol. 2, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, in press.Google Scholar

  • Peirce, Charles: 1877, ‘The Fixation of Belief’, reprinted in Peirce (1931–1935), Vol. 5, pp. 358–387.Google Scholar

  • Peirce, Charles: 1931–1935, Collected Papers, edited by Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Polanyi, Michael: 1957, ‘Problem Solving’, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 8, 89–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Polanyi, Michael: 1958, Personal Knowledge, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar

  • Polanyi, Michael: 1966, The Tacit Dimension, Doubleday, Garden City, New Jersey.Google Scholar

  • Popper, Karl R.: 1934, Logik der Forschung, published in expanded translation as The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London, 1959.Google Scholar

  • Popper, Karl R.: 1962, Conjectures and Refutations, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar

  • Popper, Karl R.: 1972, Objective Knowledge, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Post, Heinz: 1971, ‘Correspondence, Invariance, and Heuristics’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 2, 213–255.Google Scholar

  • Quine, W. V. O.: 1951, ‘Two Dogmas of Empiricism’, reprinted in his From a Logical Point of View, 2nd ed., Harper & Row, New York, 1963, pp. 20–46.Google Scholar

  • Quine, W. V. O.: 1960, Word and Object, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Quine, W. V. O.: 1969, ‘Epistemology Naturalized’, in his Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, Columbia Univ. Press, New York, pp. 69–90.Google Scholar

  • Reichenbach, Hans: 1938, Experience and Prediction, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Reichenbach, Hans: 1951, The Rise of Scientific Philosophy, Univ. of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar

  • Reitman, Walter: 1964, ‘Heuristic Decision Procedures, Open Constraints, and the Structure of Hi-defined Problems’, in M. W. Shelly, G. L. Bryan (eds.), Human Judgments and Optimality, John Wiley, New York, pp. 282–314.Google Scholar

  • Reitman, Walter: 1965, Cognition and Thought, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar

  • Rorty, Richard: 1978, ‘Epistemological Behaviorism and the De-Transcendentalization of Analytic Philosophy’, Neue Hefte für Philosophie 14, 115–142.Google Scholar

  • Ruse, Michael: 1980, ‘Ought Philosophers of Science Consider Scientific Discovery?’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • Ryle, Gilbert: 1949, The Concept of Mind, Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar

  • Salmon, Wesley: 1970, ‘Bayes’s Theorem and the History of Science’, in Stuewer ( 1970 ), pp. 68–86.Google Scholar

  • Schaffner, Kenneth: 1974, ‘Logic of Discovery and Justification in Regulatory Genetics’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science4, 349–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Schaffner, Kenneth: 1980, ‘Discovery in the Biomedical Sciences: Logic or Irrational Intuition?’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • Schaffner, Kenneth, Robert S. Cohen (eds.): 1974: PSA1972, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar

  • Schiller, F. C. S.: 1917, ‘Scientific Discovery and Logical Proof’, in C. Singer (ed.), Studies in the History and the Methods of the Sciences, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 235 - 289.Google Scholar

  • Scott, William T.: 1980, William T.: 1980, ‘The Personal Character of the Discovery of Mechanisms in Cloud Physics’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • Seeger, Raymond, and Robert S. Cohen (eds.): 1974, Philosophical Foundations of Science, Proceedings of Section L, 1969, AAAS, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar

  • Seelig, Carl: 1956, Albert Einstein: A Documentary Biography, London.Google Scholar

  • Sellars, Wilfrid: 1956, ‘Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind’, in H. Feigl and M. Scriven (eds.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 1, Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 253–329; reprinted in Sellars’s Science, Perception, and Reality, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1963, pp. 127–196.Google Scholar

  • Shapere, Dudley: 1969, ‘Notes Toward a Post-Positivistic Interpretation of Science’, in P. Achinstein and S. Barker (eds.), The Legacy of Logical Positivism, Johns Hopkins, Univ. Press, Baltimore, pp. 115–160.Google Scholar

  • Shapere, Dudley: 1974a, ‘Scientific Theories and Their Domains’, in Suppe ( 1974b ), pp. 518–565.Google Scholar

  • Shapere, Dudley: 1974b, ‘Discovery, Rationality, and Progress in Science’, in Schaffner and Cohen (1974), pp. 407–419.Google Scholar

  • Shapere, Dudley: forthcoming, ‘The Concept of Observation in Science and Philosophy’.Google Scholar

  • Siegel, Harvey: forthcoming, ‘Justification, Discovery, and the Naturalizing of Epistemology’, Philosophy of Science.Google Scholar

  • Simon, Herbert: 1977, Models of Discovery and Other Topics in the Methods of Science, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar

  • Stuewer, Roger (ed.): 1970, Historical and Philosophical Perspectives of Science, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 5, Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar

  • Suppe, Frederick: 1974a, ‘The Search for Philosophical Understanding of Scientific Theories’, in Suppe ( 1974b ), pp. 1–241.Google Scholar

  • Suppe, Frederick: 1974b, ‘The Structure of Scientific Theories’, Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana; 2nd ed., enlarged, 1977.Google Scholar

  • Suppe, Frederick: 1977, ‘Afterword’ to the 2nd ed. of Suppe (1974ft), pp. 617–730.Google Scholar

  • Suppe, Frederick, Peter Aquith (eds.): 1977, PSA 1976, Vol. 2, Philosophy of Science Assn., East Lansing, Michigan.Google Scholar

  • Toulmin, Stephen: 1972, Human Understanding, Vol. I, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton.Google Scholar

  • Toulmin, Stephen: 1974a, ‘Scientific Strategies and Historical Change’, in Seeger and Cohen ( 1974 ), pp. 401–414.Google Scholar

  • Toulmin, Stephen: 1974b, ‘Rationality and Scientific Discovery’, in Schaffner and Cohen ( 1974 ), pp. 387–406.Google Scholar

  • Wartofsky, Marx W.: 1977, ‘How to Begin Again: Medical Therapies for the Philosophy of Science’, in Suppe and Asquith ( 1977 ), pp. 109–122.Google Scholar

  • Wartofsky, Marx W.: 1980, ‘Scientific Judgment: Creativity and Discovery in Scientific Thought’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • Wimsatt, William: 1980, ‘Reductionistic Research Strategies and Their Biases in the Units of Selection Controversy’, in Nickles (1980).Google Scholar

  • Wittgenstein, Ludwig: 1953, Philosophical Investigations, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Science is a systematic way which involves observation and experimentation in order to get knowledge and improve skill; whereas, technology is the practical application of science which helps in improving the quality of life.

    Essay on Science and Technology

    New inventions in the field of science and technology play great role in the daily lives of people and making their life style advance. In order to keep students up-do-date and check their general knowledge about new inventions, they are given this topic to write essay on science and technology. Here we have provided some simple science and technology essay to help students to do better in their essay writing competition.

    Science and Technology Essay 1 (100 words)

    Advancement in the science and technology in many areas has made the lives of people more advance than the ancient time. Advancement in the science and technology is directly and positively affecting the people’s way of living on one hand however it is also affecting indirectly and negatively on the people’s health on the other hand. New inventions in the field of science and technology are very necessary in such a modern world for a country to be strong and well developed country than other countries. In this competitive world, we need more technology to go ahead and become a successful person in the life.

    Science and Technology Essay 2 (150 words)

    Development, whether it is human development or country development, is linked to the proper growth and development of the technology in many ways. Technological advancement happens when there become new inventions in the science by highly skilled and professional scientists. We can say that technology, science and development are equally proportional to each other. Development in the science and technology is very necessary for the people of any nation to go hand in hand together by the people of other countries. Development of the science and technology depends on the analysis and proper understanding of facts. Development of technology depends on the way of application of various scientific knowledge in right direction.

    In order to enhance the economy and betterment of the people of any nation, up-to-date knowledge, technology, science, and engineering are the fundamental requisites. A nation can be backward and the chances of being developed country become minimal in the lack of science and technology.


    Science and Technology Essay 3 (200 words)

    As we all know that we live in the age of science and technology. The life of every one of us is highly depends on the scientific inventions and modern day technologies. Science and technology has changed the lives of people to a great extent. It has made life easy, simple and fast. In the new era, the science development has become a necessity to finish the era of bullock cart and bring the trend of motorized vehicles. Science and technologies have been implemented to the every aspect of modernization in every nation. Modern gadgets have been introduced to every walk of life and have solved almost all the problems. It was not possible to have all the benefits of it without implementing it in the sectors like medicines, education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, information technology and other field.

    What improvement we are seeing in our life on daily basis is because of the science and technologies. For the proper growth and development of the country, it is very necessary to go science and technology hand in hand. Villages are getting developed to towns and towns to cities thus expanding the greater horizons of economy. Our country India is a fast developing country in the sense of science and technology.

    Science and Technology Essay 4 (250 words)

    Science and technology has become a debated topic in the society. On one hand, it is necessary for the modern life where other countries are continuously developing in the field of science and technology. It becomes very necessary for other countries too to grow in the same way to be strong and well developed like other countries for the future safety and security. It is science and technology which helps other weak countries to develop and be strong. We have to take support of science and technology forever to improve the way of life for the betterment of mankind. If we do not take the help of technologies such as computer, internet, electricity, etc we cannot be economically strong in the future and would be backward forever even we cannot survive in such a competitive and technological world.

    Advancement in the field of medical, agriculture, education, economy, sports, games, jobs, tourism, etc are the examples of science and technology. All such advancements show us that how both are equally beneficial for our life. We can see a clear difference in our life style while matching the ancient and modern way of life. High level of scientific and technological advancement in the field of medicine has made easy the treatment of various lethal diseases which was earlier not possible. It has helped a lot to the doctors to find effective ways to cure diseases through medicine or operations as well as research vaccines to cure diseases such as cancer, AIDS, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Leukemia, etc.


    Science and Technology Essay 5 (300 words)

    The implication of science and technology to the people’s life is very old from the time of Indus Valley Civilization. It was almost first invention when came to know about fire and wheel. Both of the inventions are considered as the mother of all the technological innovations of the modern time. Through the invention of fire people knew about the power of energy first time. Since then, people’s curiosity was increased and they started trying their hard to research about various measures to make life style easy and simple.

    India is a most famous country all over the world from the ancient time however after its slavery by the British rule, it had lost its recognition and strength. After getting freedom in 1947, it again had started getting its lost recognition in the crowd. It is the science and technology which has helped India to get its real recognition all over the world. India has become a highly growing country through the new inventions in science and technological advancement. Science and technologies are playing great role in meeting the needs and requirements of the modern people.

    Some examples of the advancement in the technologies are establishment of railway system, metro system, railway reservation system, internet, super computers, mobiles, smart phones, online access of people in almost every area, etc. Government of India is creating more opportunity to the space organization and several academic institutions (Indian Association for the Advancement of Science) for the better technological growth and development in the country. Some of the renowned scientists of the India who have made possible the technological advancement in India (through their notable scientific researches in the various fields) are Sir J. C. Bose, S. N. Bose, C. V. Raman, Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, Srinivasa Ramanujan, father of India’s nuclear power, Dr. Har Govind Singh Khorana, Vikram Sarabhai, etc.

    Science and Technology Essay 6 (400 words)

    Science and technology plays vital role in the modern life and profoundly influenced the course of human civilization. Technological advancement in the modern life has provided us lots of remarkable insights all over the world. Scientific revolutions has taken its full speed from the 20th century and has become more advance in the 21st century. We have entered to the new century in new ways and with all the arrangements for well being of the people. Modern culture and civilization has become dependent over the science and technologies as they have become integral part of life according to the need and requirement of the people.

    India has become an important source of the creative and foundational scientific developments and approaches all across the world. All the great scientific discoveries and technological achievements in our country have improved the Indian economic status and have created many new ways to the new generations to grow in the technologically advanced environment. There are many new scientific researches and development have been possible in the field of Mathematics, Architecture, Chemistry, Astronomy, Medicine, Metallurgy, Natural Philosophy, physics, agriculture, health care, pharmaceuticals, astrophysics, nuclear energy, space technology, applications, defense research, biotechnology, information technology, electronics, oceanography and other areas.

    Introduction of scientific researches, ideas and techniques to the field of education has brought a huge level of positive change in the new generation and provided them variety of new and innovative opportunities to work in the field of their own interest. Modem science in India has been awakened by the continuous and hard efforts of the outstanding scientists. Scientists in India are great who have made possible the scientific advances of highest international calibre.

    Technological development in any filed enhances the economy of any nation. In order to improve the power of science and technology in India, Indian government has made Council of Scientific and Industrial Research in the year 1942 and Board of Scientific and Industrial Research in the year 1940. In order to emphasize the growth of science and technology in the country, Indian government has established a chain of national laboratories and research institutes in various regions.

    After the independence, our country has been involved in the promotion of spread of science for the national development. Variety of policies made by the government has emphasized the self-sufficiency and sustainable growth and development all through the country. Both science and technology have impacted the economic growth and social development in the country in extraordinary manner.

    One thought on “Essay On Scientific Discoveries Of 20th And 21st Century

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *