Embioptera Classification Essay

True/False — Indicate “T” for true; “F” for false:

1. Odonata and Ephemeroptera are the only paleopterous orders. 2. Protura and Diplura are the only orders without compound eyes. 3. Diptera and Strepsiptera are the only orders with a single pair of membraneous wings. 4. Embioptera and Lepidoptera are the only orders with tarsal silk glands. 5. Hymenoptera and Isoptera are the only orders of social insects. 6. All Orthopteroids are herbivorous. 7. All apterygote insects are ametabolous. 8. All exopterygote insects are hemimetabolous. 9. All neopterous insects are holometabolous. 10. All hemipteroids have piercing-sucking mouthparts. 11. The diagram below illustrates an adult female snow scorpionfly. Mark and label the following parts of the body: A. Scape B. Epiproct C. Tibia D. Pronotum E. Metepimeron

Multiple Guess: Choose the BEST answer.

12. In a normally developing insect, a high titer of juvenile hormone should NOT be found: A. While it is molting from first to second instar. B. Before it becomes a pupa. C. When it is a sexually mature adult. D. In an adult male. 13. Which part of a molt does NOT occur during apolysis? A. Formation of new epicuticle B. Resorption of old endocuticle C. Formation of new quinone crosslinkages D. Activation of molting fluid 14. In an insect egg, the embryo begins to develop as soon as: A. Cells reach the oosome. B. The zygote nucleus starts to divide. C. Hormones are secreted by the activation center. D. Yolk contracts from one side of the egg. 15. Which order would a "lumper" NOT include in the Orthoptera? A. Mantodea C. Grylloblattodea B. Phasmida D. Isoptera 16. Which of these characteristics do insects and crustaceans have in common? A. Mandibulate mouthparts C. Jointed legs B. Open circulatory system D. All of these 17. In an obtect pupa: A. The insect is surrounded by a silken cocoon. B. The larval exoskeleton becomes a puparium. C. The insect's body forms a chrysalis. D. All of these. 18. Which structures would be found in an eruciform larva, but NOT in a scarabaeiform larva? A. Prolegs C. Compound eyes B. Mandibles D. All of these 19. Which order is most closely related (phylogenetically) to the Neuroptera? A. Mecoptera C. Phthiraptera B. Blattodea D. Odonata 20. Which class is most closely related (phylogenetically) to the Insecta? A. Xiphosura C. Myriapoda B. Crustacea D. Arachnida 21. Which group of insects has simple metamorphosis? A. Fleas C. Beetles B. Flies D. Bugs 22. Insect blood does NOT: A. Clot C. Flow through the wings B. Contain antibodies D. Transport hormones 23. In insects, the first pair of post-oral appendages are called mandibles. What are these appendages called in Arachnids? A. Maxillae C. Walking legs B. Antennae D. Chelicerae 24. Which insects do NOT damage horticultural crops (as immatures)? A. Sawflies C. Whiteflies B. Butterflies D. Caddisflies 25. Which insects would be classified as decomposers? A. Termites C. Thrips B. Crickets D. Stoneflies 26. Which sclerite lies below the epistomal suture? A. Frons C. Clypeus B. Labrum D. Gena


Match each order with the correct name for its first-stage immature. 27. Neuroptera A. Triungulin B. Naiad 28. Collembola C. Larva D. Young 29. Dermaptera E. Nymph 30. Plecoptera 31. Strepsiptera 32. Precocene (extracted from certain plants) is a compound that blocks or inhibits juvenile hormone activity in insects. What effect(s) would you expect from this compound's activity in the following insects: A. Grasshopper nymph B. Fly maggot C. Adult beetle

Short Answer:

Describe: A. Where you would find this structure and B. What is its principle function 33. Micropyle 34. Furcula 35. Tentorium 36. Haltere 37. Hypopharynx 38. How does the structure of the endocuticle differ from that of the exocuticle? 39. How does the developmental fate of endoderm differ from that of ectoderm? 40. How do the wings of a beetle differ from those of a grasshopper? 41. How do the orthopteroids differ from the hemipteroids? 42. How do lobsters and shrimp differ from the insects? 43. Use the keys for "Source", "Structure", and "Function" to complete the blanks in the following table: Hormone Source Structure Function ------------------------------------------------------------------- Ecdysteroids _______ _______ _______ Eclosion Hormone _______ _______ _______ Bursicon _______ _______ _______ Juvenile Hormone _______ _______ _______ Brain Hormone _______ _______ _______ ------------------------------------------------------------------- Source: Structure: Function: A. Ventral ganglia A. Peptide A. Trigger ecdysis B. Corpora allata B. Terpene B. Trigger apolysis C. Corpora cardiaca C. Steroid C. Inhibit development in D. Prothoracic gland D. Amine imaginal discs D. Control activity of prothoracic glands E. Stimulate tanning Give TWO different common names for insects in each of these orders: 44. Orthoptera: A. B. 45. Hymenoptera: A. B. 46. Zygentoma: A. B. 47. Neuroptera: A. B. 48. Hemiptera: A. B.


49. Explain how insect wings and the mechanics of flight have changed through natural selection to become more efficient in the higher orders.

Insect Identification Key
Order Embioptera: the webspinners

This webspinner displays the smoky-colored wings common to male webspinners. The tips of two small cerci are barely visible beneath the wings at the rear end of the insect. The pictured insect is a male of the species known as Saunders' embiid Oligotoma saundersii. Photo credit: S. Dean Rider, Jr.

Based on your answers to the questions, you have identified your insect as being in the order Embioptera!

Members of this order include:webspinners.

Etymology:Embioptera comes from the Greek words embios, which means lively, and and pteron which means wing. These insects, however, are not particularly speedy or agile flyers, so the description remains a mystery. Some authorities have suggested it refers to some male webspinners, which flutter their wings.

General characteristics:
• small (4-15 mm long)
• pale-colored
• long, cylindrical body with a thorax about a long as the abdomen
• some males have long and narrow, smoky-colored, membranous wings; other males are wingless
• all females are wingless
• two short cerci, which are dissimilar in size and shape in some males
• hemimetabolous metamorphosis (egg — nymph — adult)

These are the male and female of the same species of webspinner, Embia major. The male has wings, while the female is wingless. The male has two different-sized cerci, but the female’s cerci are the same size. They do share the long antennae, and the quite long thorax. Illustration credit: A.D. Imms’ paper in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London Zoology, 1913.

Number of described species worldwide: about 350

Kingdom Animalia
   Phylum Arthropoda
      Class Insecta
         Order Embioptera

For a list of all of the orders in this key, click here: List of Orders.

Classification note: Occasionally, you may see this order listed as Embiodea or Embiidina.

Oops!If this doesn't appear to be the order for your insect, go back through the key and look more carefully at your insect while answering the questions again. Your perseverance will reward you!

I would like to return to the start of this key.

Unless noted otherwise, photographs on this website are the property of the photographers and may not be reused without written permission from the photographers. To obtain permission, email the photographers here. High-resolution versions of the photographs are available.

Photos at the top of this website are (from left to right): potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) — photo credit: Scott Bauer, U.S. Department of Agriculture; ebony jewelwing (Calopteryx maculata)— photo credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; sweat bee (Agapostemon splendens) — photo credit: Natalie Allen and Stephanie Kolski, U.S. Geological Survey; preying mantis, monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), hellgrammite (aka toe biter) larva and eyed click beetle (Alaus oculatus) — photo credit: Leslie Mertz, DailyGraceCards.com; Halloween pennant (Celithemis eponina) — photo credit: Kay Meng, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

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