Here are half a dozen recent papers on aspects of depression and anxiety. They include an interesting overview on brain-psychology connections by Aaron Beck, one of the originators of CBT; a meta-analysis of studies on psychotherapy delivered by phone, internet & videoconferencing; details of a free database of studies on psychotherapy for depression; a paper querying research on the value of exercise as a treatment for depression & anxiety (click here for an earlier blog post on this); a long overdue meta-analysis on the benefits of relaxation training for anxiety; and work on prevention programmes for adolescents at high risk of developing depression. Happily a good few of these studies are freely viewable in full text - long may this trend towards free access continue.
Beck, A. T. (2008). "The Evolution of the Cognitive Model of Depression and Its Neurobiological Correlates." Am J Psychiatry165(8): 969-977. [Abstract/Full Text]
Although the cognitive model of depression has evolved appreciably since its first formulation over 40 years ago, the potential interaction of genetic, neurochemical, and cognitive factors has only recently been demonstrated. Combining findings from behavioral genetics and cognitive neuroscience with the accumulated research on the cognitive model opens new opportunities for integrated research. Drawing on advances in cognitive, personality, and social psychology as well as clinical observations, expansions of the original cognitive model have incorporated in successive stages automatic thoughts, cognitive distortions, dysfunctional beliefs, and information-processing biases. The developmental model identified early traumatic experiences and the formation of dysfunctional beliefs as predisposing events and congruent stressors in later life as precipitating factors. It is now possible to sketch out possible genetic and neurochemical pathways that interact with or are parallel to cognitive variables. A hypersensitive amygdala is associated with both a genetic polymorphism and a pattern of negative cognitive biases and dysfunctional beliefs, all of which constitute risk factors for depression. Further, the combination of a hyperactive amygdala and hypoactive prefrontal regions is associated with diminished cognitive appraisal and the occurrence of depression. Genetic polymorphisms also are involved in the overreaction to the stress and the hypercortisolemia in the development of depression--probably mediated by cognitive distortions. I suggest that comprehensive study of the psychological as well as biological correlates of depression can provide a new understanding of this debilitating disorder. (Click here for more details of this article).
Bee, P. E., P. Bower, et al. (2008). "Psychotherapy mediated by remote communication technologies: a meta-analytic review." BMC Psychiatry8: 60. [Free Full Text]
BACKGROUND: Access to psychotherapy is limited by psychopathology (e.g. agoraphobia), physical disability, occupational or social constraints and/or residency in under-served areas. For these populations, interventions delivered via remote communication technologies (e.g. telephone, internet) may be more appropriate. However, there are concerns that such delivery may influence the therapeutic relationship and thus reduce therapy effectiveness. This review aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of remotely communicated, therapist-delivered psychotherapy. METHODS: Systematic review (including electronic database searching and correspondence with authors) of randomised trials of individual remote psychotherapy. Electronic databases searched included MEDLINE (1966-2006), PsycInfo (1967-2006), EMBASE (1980-2006) and CINAHL databases (1982-2006). The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDAN-CTR). All searches were conducted to include studies with a publication date to July 2006. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were identified, ten assessing psychotherapy by telephone, two by internet and one by videoconference. Pooled effect sizes for remote therapy versus control conditions were 0.44 for depression (95%CI 0.29 to 0.59, 7 comparisons, n = 726) and 1.15 for anxiety-related disorders (95%CI 0.81 to 1.49, 3 comparisons, n = 168). There were few comparisons of remote versus face-to-face psychotherapy. CONCLUSION: Remote therapy has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to conventional psychological therapy services. Telephone-based interventions are a particularly popular research focus and as a means of therapeutic communication may confer specific advantages in terms of their widespread availability and ease of operation. However, the available evidence is limited in quantity and quality. More rigorous trials are required to confirm these preliminary estimates of effectiveness. Future research priorities should include overcoming the methodological shortcomings of published work by conducting large-scale trials that incorporate both clinical outcome and more process-orientated measures.
Cuijpers, P., A. van Straten, et al. (2008). "Psychological treatment of depression: a meta-analytic database of randomized studies." BMC Psychiatry8: 36. [Free Full Text]
BACKGROUND: A large number of randomized controlled studies have clearly demonstrated that psychological interventions are effective in the treatment of depression. The number of studies in this area is increasing rapidly. In this paper, we present a database of controlled and comparative outcome studies on psychological treatments of depression, based on a series of meta-analyses published by our group. The database can be accessed freely through the Internet. DESCRIPTION: We conducted a comprehensive literature search of the major bibliographical databases (Pubmed; Psycinfo; Embase; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and we examined the references of 22 earlier meta-analyses of psychological treatment of depression. We included randomized studies in which the effects of a psychological therapy on adults with depression were compared to a control condition, another psychological intervention, or a combined treatment (psychological plus pharmacological). We conducted nine meta-analyses of subgroups of studies taken from this dataset. The 149 studies included in these 9 meta-analyses are included in the current database. In the 149 included studies, a total of 11,369 patients participated. In the database, we present selected characteristics of each study, including characteristics of the patients (the study population, recruitment method, definition of depression); characteristics of the experimental conditions and interventions (the experimental conditions, N per condition, format, number of sessions); and study characteristics (measurement times, measures used, attrition, type of analysis and country). CONCLUSION: The data on the 149 included studies are presented in order to give other researchers access to the studies we collected, and to give background information about the meta-analyses we have published using this dataset. The number of studies examining the effects of psychological treatments of depression has increased considerably in the past decades, and this will continue in the future. The database we have presented in this paper can help to integrate the results of these studies in future meta-analyses and systematic reviews on psychological treatments for depression.
De Moor, M. H. M., D. I. Boomsma, et al. (2008). "Testing Causality in the Association Between Regular Exercise and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression." Arch Gen Psychiatry65(8): 897-905. [Abstract/Full Text]
Context In the population at large, regular exercise is associated with reduced anxious and depressive symptoms. Results of experimental studies in clinical populations suggest a causal effect of exercise on anxiety and depression, but it is unclear whether such a causal effect also drives the population association. We cannot exclude the major contribution of a third underlying factor influencing exercise behavior and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Objective To test causal effects of exercise on anxious and depressive symptoms in a population-based sample. Design Population-based longitudinal study (1991-2002) in a genetically informative sample of twin families. Setting Causal effects of exercise were tested by bivariate genetic modeling of the association between exercise and symptoms of anxiety and depression, correlation of intrapair differences in these traits among genetically identical twins, and longitudinal modeling of changes in exercise behavior and anxious and depressive symptoms. Participants A total of 5952 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register, 1357 additional siblings, and 1249 parents. All participants were aged 18 to 50 years. Main Outcome Measurements Survey data about leisure-time exercise (metabolic equivalent task hours per week based on type, frequency, and duration of exercise) and 4 scales of anxious and depressive symptoms (depression, anxiety, somatic anxiety, and neuroticism, plus a composite score). Results Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were small and were best explained by common genetic factors with opposite effects on exercise behavior and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In genetically identical twin pairs, the twin who exercised more did not display fewer anxious and depressive symptoms than the co-twin who exercised less. Longitudinal analyses showed that increases in exercise participation did not predict decreases in anxious and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Regular exercise is associated with reduced anxious and depressive symptoms in the population at large, but the association is not because of causal effects of exercise.
Manzoni, G. M., F. Pagnini, et al. (2008). "Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis." BMC Psychiatry8: 41. [Free Full Text]
BACKGROUND: Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. METHODS: All studies (1997-2007), both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation) for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. RESULTS: 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68) in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634) in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. CONCLUSION: The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training.
Stice, E., P. Rohde, et al. (2008). "Brief cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents outperforms two alternative interventions: a randomized efficacy trial." J Consult Clin Psychol76(4): 595-606. [PubMed]
In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms than did supportive-expressive, bibliotherapy, and assessment-only participants at posttest, though only the difference compared with assessment controls was significant at 6-month follow-up. CB participants showed significantly greater improvements in social adjustment and reductions in substance use at posttest and 6-month follow-up than did participants in all 3 other conditions. Supportive-expressive and bibliotherapy participants showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms than did assessment-only controls at certain follow-up assessments but produced no effects for social adjustment and substance use. CB, supportive-expressive, and bibliotherapy participants showed a significantly lower risk for major depression onset over the 6-month follow-up than did assessment-only controls. The evidence that this brief CB intervention reduced risk for future depression onset and outperformed alternative interventions for certain ecologically important outcomes suggests that this intervention may have clinical utility.
3 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Approach Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) acknowledges that a person’s beliefs, automatic thoughts and beliefs affect behavior. Freedom of choice and personal responsibility are incorporated into CBT which allows the therapist and clients to create a collaborative relationship where they can work together to improve the clients life. Part I Leading Figures Psychologists Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis are two leading figures of Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) (Goldberg, & Goldberg, 2013). In the late 1970’s they began combining behavioral and cognitive therapy techniques to help couples overcome obstacles in their marriage. Albert Ellis posited the A-B-B theory of dysfunctional behavior which states the activating events of a person’s life are not responsible for the unwelcome consequences; instead the irrational and unrealistic interpretations and beliefs are causing the problem. The CBT is an empirically based modality based on scientific methods that can be evaluated and tested for its effectiveness (Goldberg, & Goldberg, 2013) and is a way for the client and therapist to work together to develop a solution to the client’s problem. According to Asmundson, Beck and Hoffman (2013), “A number of studies from the field of neuroscience support the notion that changes in cognitions and conscious self-regulation of emotions directly influence the electrochemical dynamics in the brain” (p. 203) making CBT a great way to implement second-order changes. Therapists who practice from a CBT modality believe that emotions influence how individuals perceive certain events and situations (Asmundson, Beck, & Hofmann, 2013). Therapists attempt to help clients by changing how they perceive events and their emotional