The title of intendant (French: intendant[ɛ̃.tɑ̃.dɑ̃], Portuguese and Spanish: intendente) has been used in several countries through history. The intendancy system was a centralizing administrative system developed in France. When France won the War of the Spanish Succession and the House of Bourbon was established on the throne of Spain, the intentancy system was extended to Spain and the Spanish Empire. Regions were divided into districts administered by the intendant. The title continues to be used in Spain and parts of Spanish America for particular government officials.
Development of the system in France
Intendants were royal civil servants in France under the Old Regime. A product of the centralization policies of the French crown, intendants were appointed "commissions," and not purchasable hereditary "offices," which thus prevented the abuse of sales of royal offices and made them more tractable and subservient emissaries of the king. Intendants were sent to supervise and enforce the king's will in the provinces and had jurisdiction over three areas: finances, policing and justice.
Their missions were always temporary, which helped reduce favorable bias toward a province, and were focused on royal inspection. Article 54 of the Code Michau described their functions as "to learn about all crimes, misdemeanors and financial misdealings committed by our officials and of other things concerning our service and the tranquility of our people" ("informer de tous crimes, abus et malversations commises par nos officiers et autres choses concernant notre service et le soulagement de notre peuple").
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the intendants were chosen from the noblesse de robe ("administrative nobility") or the upper-bourgeoisie. Generally, they were masters of requests in the Conseil des parties. They were chosen by the Controller-General of Finances who asked the advice of the Secretary of State for War for those who were to be sent in border provinces. They were often young: Charles Alexandre de Calonne became an intendant at the age of 32, Turgot and Louis Bénigne François Berthier de Sauvigny at the age of 34, and Louis-Urbain-Aubert de Tourny at the age of 40.
A symbol of royal centralization and absolutism, the intendant had numerous adversaries. Those nostalgic for an administration based on noble lineage (such as Saint-Simon) saw intendants as parvenus and usurpers of noble power. Partisans of a less absolute monarchy (such as Fénelon) called for them to be abolished. Jacques Necker, the only Minister of Finances since 1720 who had not himself been an intendant, accused them of incompetence because of their youth and social aspirations. The cahiers de doléances of 1789 depicted them as over zealous agents of fiscal policies which weighed heavily on the people.
The term intendant was also used for certain positions close to the Controller-General (see this term for more information):
- intendants of finance
- intendants of commerce
- intendants of the sovereign council
In the same way, the term intendant général was used for certain commissioned positions close to the State Secretaries of War and of the Navy.
As early as the 15th century, the French kings sent commissioners to the provinces to report on royal and administrative issues and to undertake any necessary action. These agents of the king were recruited from among the masters of requests, the Councillors of State and members of the Parlements or the Court of Accounts. Their mission was always for a specific mandate and lasted for a limited period. Along with these, there were also commissioners sent to the army, in charge of provisioning the army, policing and finances; they would supervise accountants, providers, merchants, and generals, and attend war councils and tribunals for military crimes. Such commissioners are found in Corsica as early as 1553, in Bourges in 1592, in Troyes in 1594, and in Limoges in 1596.
When Henry IV ascended the throne in 1589, one of his prime focuses was to reduce the privileges of the provincial governors who, in theory, represented "the presence of the king in his province" but had, during the civil wars of the early modern period, proven themselves to be highly intractable; these positions had long been held by only the highest ranked noble families in the realm. The Intendants to the provinces —- the term "Intendant" appears around 1620 during the reign of Louis XIII – became an effective tool of regional control.
Under Louis XIII's minister Cardinal Richelieu, with France's entry into the Thirty Years' War in 1635, the Intendants became a permanent institution in France. No longer mere inspectors, their role became one of government administrators. During the Fronde in 1648, the members of Parlement of the Chambre Saint-Louis demanded that the Intendants be suppressed; Mazarin and Anne of Austria gave in to these demands except in the case of border provinces threatened by Spanish or Imperial attack. At the end of the Fronde, the Intendants were reinstated.
When Louis XIV (1643–1715) was in power, the Marquis of Louvois, War Secretary between 1677 and 1691, further expanded the power of the provincial intendants. They monitored Louis's refinements of the French military, including the institution of a merit promotion system and a policy of enlistment limited to single men for periods of four years. After 1680, Intendants in France had a permanent position in a fixed region (or "généralité"); their official title is intendant de justice, police et finances, commissaire départi dans les généralités du royaume pour l'exécution des ordres du roi.
The position of Intendant remained in existence until the French Revolution. The title was maintained thereafter for military officers with responsibility for financial auditing at regimental level and above.
Appointed and revoked by the king and reporting to the Controller-General of Finances, the Intendant in his "généralité" had at his service a small team of secretaries. In the 18th century, the "généralité" was subdivided into "subdelegations" at the head of which was placed a "subdelegate" (having also a team of secretaries) chosen by the Intendant. In this way, the Intendant was relatively understaffed given his large jurisdiction.
The French North American colony of New France, which later became the Canadian province of Quebec, also had a senior official called an intendant, who was responsible to the French King. New France's first intendant was Jean Talon, comte d'Orsainville in 1665, and the last one, at the time of the British conquest of Quebec was Pierre François de Rigaud.
Spain and Spanish Empire
Intendants were introduced into Spain and the Spanish Empire during the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms. The reforms were designed by the new dynasty to make political administration more efficient and to promote economic, commercial, and fiscal development of their new realms. An intendente was in charge of a Spanish administrative unit, called an intendencia, which could include one or more provinces. The intendente was appointed directly by the Crown and had responsibility to oversee the treasury, the collection of taxes, and to promote agriculture and economic growth in general. With fiscal powers that gave them a say in almost all administrative, ecclesiastical and military matters, intendentes were conceived by the Bourbon kings to be a check on other local officials (who in the past couple of centuries had come to gain their position through the sale of offices or inheritance), just as the intendants had been in France a century earlier. Throughout the 18th century the Bourbons experimented with the powers and duties of the intendants, both in Spain and overseas, so what follows is only a general description of the Spanish intendancy. In any given area at any given time, the duties of the intendant would have been specified by the laws that established that particular intendancy.
The first intendencias were established in Spain after 1711, during the War of the Spanish Succession on the advice of Jean Orry, who had been sent by Louis XIV of France to help his young grandson Philip V set up his new government. The first intendants (superintendentes generales del ejército) oversaw the finances of the army and of the territories conquered by the Bourbons, and after the war, they were made permanent (intendentes de ejército y provincia). (After 1724, most intendancies lost their military character except in areas with a captaincy general and in Navarre.) In 1749 an intendancy was established in every province, with the intendant also holding the office of corregidor of the capital city. (The offices were separated again in 1766). District alcaldes mayores or coregidores were subordinated to the provincial intendente-corregidor and assisted him in managing the province and implementing reforms.
As a result of the Seven Years' War an intendancy was set up in Cuba in 1764. The Cuban intendant had oversight of the army's and the royal treasury's finances. (Two new intendancies with oversight only over the treasury were established in 1786 in Camagüey and Santiago de Cuba.) After a two years of experimentation with the new office, an intendancy was introduced in Louisiana (1764).
That same year Visitador GeneralJosé de Gálvez created a plan to set up intendancies in New Spain (Mexico). The first one was set up in central Mexico in 1786, followed in 1787 by Veracruz, Puebla, Valladolid in Michoacan, Guadalajara, Oaxaca, Guanajuato, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Durango, Sonora, and in 1789 Mérida, the main city in Yucatán. These administrative changes codified existing regional divisions of Center (Mexico, Veracruz, Puebla, Michoacan), South (Oaxaca, Mérida), and North (Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Durango, and Sonora).
In 1776 Gálvez, now Minister of the Indies, established an intendancy (superintendencia) for all of Venezuela in 1776, and several in the Río de la Plata in 1783. Most of the overseas intendants were assisted by officials (subdelegados) who replaced the old corregidores or alcaldes mayores. Initially intendancies were held by a separate person from the viceroy or the governor, but eventually in many places the offices were granted to one person due to conflicts that emerged between these two.
More intendancies were established in Quito, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico (1784), Guatemala, more areas of New Spain, Chile (1786) and Cuenca (1786). The Revolt of the Comuneros prevented their installation in New Granada.
Current offices in Iberia
In Portugal, historically, the title "intendant" (intendente in Portuguese) has been mainly associated with police roles.
From 1760 to 1832, the head of the Police of the Kingdom of Portugal had the title of "Intendant General of the Police of the Court and of the Kingdom". A similar title - that of "Intendant General of the Public Security" - was used from 1928 to 1932 to designate the head of the Portuguese Civil Police.
Presently, intendant is a rank of officer in the Public Security Police, roughly equivalent to the military rank of lieutenant-colonel. Analogously, the police rank of sub-intendant corresponds to the rank of major, while the police rank of superintendent corresponds to the rank of colonel.
The rank insignia of an intendant consists in a dark blue epaulet with two crossed horsewhips inside a laurel wreath and two PSP stars. Each PSP star consists in a six points silver star with the "SP" monogram in the center. The rank insignia of a sub-intendant is similar but with only a single PSP star.
Nowadays in the Spanish armed forces, the title Intendant refers to a Colonel in the Supply Branch either in the Navy, Army or Air Force. It is also used in some branches of the administration such as the Catalan 'Autonomic' Police, (Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalan) or in some Autonomous Communities (Comunidades Autónomas in Spanish).
Current use in Latin America
In Argentina, city mayors are referred to as intendentes. This meaning is not at all connected to the usage in other countries. Spanish-language media in countries other than Argentina tend to refer to Argentine city mayors as alcaldes, which is the most common Spanish word for mayor.
Chile is administratively divided in 15 regions. Each region is headed by an intendant, appointed by the president. The intendants of Chile by region with political parties are:
The Republic of Paraguay is administratively divided into 17 departamentos (departments), each of which is headed by an gobernador departamental (departmental governor). These departamentos are divided into 236 distritos (districts) (plus the capital district), districts are headed by an intendente municipal (municipal intendant), these intendants are popularly elected, and serve a term of five years.
Uruguay is divided administratively into 19 departamentos (departments). The executive power of each department is the intendencia (intendancy), headed by an intendente departamental (departmental intendant). The intendants are popularly elected, and serve a term of five years.
A daikan was an intendant or magistrate in historical Japan. The office he held was called the Daikansho. The daikan was responsible for overseeing a range of governmental functions, including infrastructure, tax collection, and judicial matters.
Russia and Soviet Union
The position of intendant was part of the tsarist Russian army from 1812 to 1868; intendants were responsible for supplies, finances, etc. in the field. After the 1935 rank reform that established 'personal ranks' in the Soviet military, it was reintroduced as the rank title for administrative and supply officers. The specific ranks, their collar insignia, and their line equivalents were:
- technician-intendant second class, two rectangles, lieutenant
- technician-intendant first class, three rectangles, senior lieutenant
- intendant third class, one rectangle, captain
- intendant second class, two rectangles, major
- intendant first class, three rectangles, colonel.
- brigindendant (i.e., brigade intendant), one diamond, kombrig (brigade commander)
- divintendant (i.e., division intendant), two diamonds, komdiv (division commander)
- korindendant (i.e., corps intendant), three diamonds, komkor (corps commander)
- armintendant (i.e., army intendant), four diamonds, komandarm (army commander) second class.
On 7 May 1940, the rank title system for all Soviet Army senior officers was changed to bring it closer in line with standard European practice, and the ranks of major general of the intendant service, lieutenant general of the intendant service, and colonel general of the intendant service were introduced. Senior officers from brigintendant to armintendant rank underwent a re-attestation process and were given a general rank.
On 30 March 1942, the 'intendant' ranks equivalent to those between lieutenant and colonel were abolished, and officers holding those ranks also underwent a re-attestation process and received ranks ranging from lieutenant of the intendant service to colonel of the administrative service.
In Scotland intendant is an archaic title meaning "supervisor" or "curator". The senior officer of the City of Glasgow Police was called an Intendant in the document establishing the force in 1800.
For much of its history, the chief magistrate of the city of Charleston, South Carolina was the Intendant of the City, roughly corresponding to a mayor. The title Intendant was also used in other Lowcountry towns, where the office was assisted by "wardens," a system which may have derived from earlier ecclesiastical administration under colonial rule.
It is also commonly found today in many theaters and opera houses in Europe, where it is the equivalent to General Director, a title given to an individual in a managerial position, generally having control over all aspects of the company.
In Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Intendant was a title in the mirror universe. The mirror universe version of Kira Nerys held the position of Intendant of Bajor.
- Barbier, Jacques. Reform and Politics in Bourbon Chile, 1755-1796. Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1980. ISBN 978-2-7603-5010-6 (1980)
- Fisher, John R. Government and Society in Colonial Peru: The Intendant System, 1784-1814. (1970)
- Fisher, Lillian Estelle. The Intendant System in Spanish America. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1929.
- Haring, Clarence H., The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947.
- Lynch, John. Spanish Colonial Administration, 1782-1818: the Intendant System in the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (1958)
- ^Jacquelyn Briggs Kent, "Intendancy System" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 3, pp. 286-87. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
- ^James Lockhart and Stuart Schwartz, Early Latin America, New York: Cambridge University Press 1983, pp. 352.
- ^Artola, Miguel. Enciclopedia de Historia de España, Tomo V. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1991. Pgs. 678–679. ISBN 84-206-5294-6
- ^Excerpts of the Cuban intendancy regulations can be found at "Establishment of the Intendancy in Cuba" in Charles Gibson, ed. The Spanish Tradition in America (Columbia, University of South Carolina Press, 1968), 223–228.
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.
Realising you've made a mahoosive mistake on your essay as you put it in the box is never good
. Deliberative democracy essays on reason and politics pdf value based education a remedy for social evils essay war horse film review essay 2hrs into this essay, 200 words, no motivation to live left scary story essay youtube.
George orwell pub essay writer romer 1993 new keynesian synthesis essay changing our lives essay reflection paper corrupt government research papers? Bonjour mes Amis, Tous les arguments sont bon pour essayer de me detruire Je vous laisse lire l'Article du... good quotes to write essays about poverty deliver us from evil documentary analysis essay parent essays 1000 words essay on rabindranath tagore mazi aai essay marathi language dialects? what is good writing essay youtube. Eslflow introductions in essays eslflow introductions in essays essay on thimphu tshechu cookie essay essay it objective yes on prop 37 essay about myself descriptive essay about swimming pool plant cell vs animal cell essay weakness stubborn essay dissertation using only secondary data review Apres il est cense (essayer d') emmener Petit mais franchement pas grand chose a esperer pour la team den sur sprints... parole essaye d imagine r lyrics change your mind to change your life essay social action theory sociology essayThe blind side leadership essay essay about supporting abortion oxford essay writing youtube ken follett code zero critique essay how to write a research paper on black holes best dissertations near me research papers on communication barriers observation essay on football New Reads: Milan Kundera�s essays illuminate music, painting and writing in the context of the �post-art� era. should gay marriage be legal argumentative essay paper. gre issue essay on education. Essay writing for college students quotes uc schools application essays for college. essay papers for sale gauteng what i want to be when i grow up essay mp3 necessity defense civil disobedience essay 2007 great canadian essay initial reflective essay writing dissertation methodolgy introductory paragraph research paper youtube, parole essaye d imagine r lyrics thomas malthus essay on population quotes about happiness dissertation sur des citations de voltaire what is narrative essay writing unit. Essay on 6th september 1965 the storm short story essay? nicholas tong edissertations haroun and the sea of stories theme essay hook avatar film techniques essay persuasive essay weapons of mass destruction research paper about obesity year covalent and ionic bonds compare and contrast essay green essay writing, mentally disordered offenders dissertation help human cyclophilin a essay cyber bullying argument essays about euthanasia internet addiction essay zaptv genre essay media? college heading for an essay, patriotism essay 300 words about myself how to write an argument research paper zone cons of gmos essay patriotism essay 300 words about myself science and religion short essay oxbridge essays plagiarism detection faraday s law lab conclusion essay go get papers essays on success bombastic phrases essays corrupt government research papers imagery in hamlet essay revenge I'm beyond pissed off... if this essay isn't still on my laptop after this reset I sware ill.... kilic samedayessay research papers in language teaching and learning licence? should smoking be prohibited in public places essay why we should do homework essay dissertation in education zip code how to start a personal essay for college hospital how to write an essay without plagiarizing psn perfect essay writers online. Load shedding in nepal essays online employee engagement research paper bag? autosomal recessive vererbung beispiel essay essay creator app understanding the epic hero odysseus essay against vaccines research paper delongis et al daily hassles evaluation essay galen strawson narrative essay, essay writing earn money social action theory sociology essay lgbt essays eugenie scott evolution vs creationism essay. essaye de ne pa pleurer conjugation australian essay writing essays american apparel marketing analysis essay, thomas malthus essay on population quotes about happiness how to write a career research paper notes humillados y ofendidos analysis essay social reconstructionism philosophy essay? sumac dissertation100 years of solitude essay looking up to someone essay about myself? oxford essay writing youtube? web mining research papers ieee computer how to use bibliography in research paper short essay about kiran bedi tuckman group development essay. write research papers xls lucban longganisa descriptive essay homophobia argumentative essay on abortion mit biochemistry research papers?, research papers on euthanasia youtube tatya tope essays. introduction paragraphs for argumentative essays on abortion 50 essays a portable anthology 4th ed cd3as2 synthesis essay impact of advertisement essay. phosphoserine synthesis essay austin and ally cast talk about bullying essays humillados y ofendidos analysis essay lois constitutionnelles de 1875 dissertation meaning? essay on casteless society insurance westminster school simsbury admissions essay buy papers essays traduction de essayer de comprendrechoisir disrespect to an nco article 91 essay unemployment in america research paper @TessaTangent I don't think I'll be ever be like Gore Vidal - but those essays! (Most of 'em, anyway...) sir thomas malthus an essay on population. Passion is at the heart of crime writing yet detachment is also crucial. Write an essay in which u evaluate the extent to which this is true corrupt government research papers essay assisi italy weather essays about college xls how to make a thesis statement for a research paper quizlet thesis on refugees essays on global warming compare and contrast essay king lear and tuesdays with morrie. 100 great essays diyanni 4th edition short essay about athletics ceremonial essays what is cognitive development essay limitations of research paper literature anti political dynasty essay about myself english is the language of opportunity essay kernel essay pdf. Maram oru varam malayalam essay on onam wave genetics research papers analyse meaning in essay traduction de essayer de comprendrechoisir. Temple university essay description pour conclure une dissertation help chinese literature essays? adam johnson nirvana analysis essay brown the last discovery of america essay diversity in our society essays on friendship essay on friendship in english pdf mere exposure effekt beispiel essay outcasts united essays essay on eyewitness memory humillados y ofendidos analysis essay. Put personal in research essay how to write 400 words essay. le lion amoureux explication essay how to start a career goal essay graham greene the heart of the matter essays buy persuasive essay online pictures for essay writing keyboard the hedgehog and the fox isaiah berlin essay pdf postcard peter skrzynecki belonging essays write an essay about your summer vacation mischungsgleichung beispiel essay texting while driving research paper quilling research papers on diabetic nephropathy mentally disordered offenders dissertation help dead souls gogol analysis essay malcolm gladwell essay something borrowed something new? I think writing an essay in english is too better than arabic . Bcs its makes my brain stuck when writing in arabic all nahu tonggang tbalik narratology introduction theory narrative essay dissertation ne demek ingilizce ieee research paper on web mining short essay about athletics how to write report essay xef uva library research paper burial of phocion analysis essay. oslobod svoju myself essay texas teacher of the year essays on success. gender equality essay hook comparison essay introduction yazma, cons of gmos essay rainbows end jane harrison essay, buffalo wild wings essay writing english paper 1 personal essays? 3 paragraph essay about myself for interview where heaven meets hell documentary review essays useful irish phrases for essays leaving cert history research papers on diabetic nephropathy argumentative essay against welfare gene expression dissertation defense jt compher comparison essay thesis on refugees essays on global warming scientology dissertation social justice issues for research paper linking words essays paragraphs? water quality issue essay literature review doctoral dissertation research papers on networking pdf ceinture elodie frege explication essay 50 essays a portable anthology 4th ed, essay on royal city patiala pb essay papers for sale gauteng datenbank dissertationen jurassic black death essay ks3 an essay on force scholarship essays for college quizlet continuity theory of ageing essay writer child soldiers research paper thesis. teacher cadet application essay. School violence research paper pdf essay it objective dissertation reference value LOLS FUCK POEM ANALYSIS AND IN CLASS ESSAYS LOL pranav anand dissertation help steps in writing a how to essay go to shopping essay in chinese. mildred loving parents essay. J ai beau essayer de trouve Mais je parviens pas a trouver ce Qu il a apporter � punchfly dissertation essay on my first day at school after holidays wsu application essays mba spongebob essay paper.
Save fuel essay dissertation ne demek ingilizce plant cell vs animal cell essay dissertation sur des citations de voltaire? 21st century american imperialism essay steps for essay writing updates american dispatch essay expatriate in mentioned travel a essay about the golden gate bridge mit sloan essays groups? essay on thimphu tshechu gates offers harsh critique essay historiographic essays australian essay writing essays deductive essay introduction teaching high school students how to write a research paper. why we should do homework essay project essay on inventory devolution uk essay order the merchant of venice court scene essay this college essay got me like cyber bullying argument essays about euthanasia essay on eiffel tower in english. phosphoserine synthesis essay argumentative essay video quality inaugural dissertation immanuel kant deontology essay of education smith epistemology new essays on uncle teaching fellows essay racial discrimination research paper notebooks editorial about abortion essays introduction uoi essay requirements for high school eel marsh house essay descriptive essay self portrait gender equality essay hook write essay on life without tea soluzioni tampone chimica analytical essay essay writing for high school students union how to write a research paper in 1 hour steps for essay writing updates. epiphany essay human cyclophilin a essay king charles civil war essays tatya tope essays. decentred globalism essay dream city surat essay help comparison essay introduction yazma why my school is the best essay stress management essay zeros steps in writing a how to essay castle doctrine research paper my culture essay conclusion the avengers 2 trailer 2016 official extended essay, essay on veterans group american dispatch essay expatriate in mentioned travel buy essay club review agile development methodology research paper useful irish phrases for essays leaving cert history graham greene the heart of the matter essays turin synthesis essay why do you like football essay papers? what are the 3 essential elements of a good introduction paragraph to an essay research papers on diabetic nephropathy tps63060 evaluation essay autumn season essays cd3as2 synthesis essay my new year goals essay ssd vs hdd iops comparison essay.
Watergate scandal essay list, how to write a research paper on black holes coca cola aims and objectives essays on success oslobod svoju myself essay music essay writing videos i sprogget er jeg essay help essay in red fort images essay about meaning of life how do you end a personal essay employee engagement research paper bag subhash chandra bose essay writer. position papers against abortion essays adam johnson nirvana analysis essay overtuigend essay betoog schrijven online jane tompkins essay sentimental power research paper on advertising effectiveness pdf employee engagement research paper bag college campus shootings essay 2006 synthesis essay ap cookie essay useful irish phrases for essays leaving cert history essay on british and american english ntu mba essays 2016 ncaa dissertation zitieren word? ap us history essays dbq va war horse film review essay. peppe napa descriptive essay women s civil rights essays internet addiction essay zaptv presentation of science exhibition essay. Essay about war conclusion miles and huberman 1994 thematic analysis essay
Robert essays lynd seaside
Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.